29 August 2018

0360 | Photo | 369. (kroatische) Infanterie-Division



The Poglavnik presents the 369th Grenadier Regiment with a flag. Minister Ivica Frković addresses the legionnaires of the 369th Regiment, "Devil's Division", after the presentation of the flag, in Mostar (Frković was also the division supervisor). Standing on the stage behind the minister (from left to right) are Lieutenant General Vilko Begić (Doglavnik) and Lieutenant General Fritz Neidholdt, division commander. Standing between the stage and the standard-bearer is Colonel Kurt Fischer, regimental commander. The regiment was given the flag "in honour of the Stalingrad heroes of the Croatian Legion", that is, of the 369th Reinforced Croatian Infantry Regiment, destroyed at Stalingrad. (Reminder: The "Devil's Division" and its first regiment inherited the number 369 from the destroyed legion.) On the reverse of the flag, there is the inscription "For the Poglavnik and the homeland" with Ante Pavelić's monogram, and on the obverse, there is the inscription "By the grace of God and a stroke of luck" (a motto incorrectly attributed to Ban Jelačić) with the Croatian coat of arms and the regimental number, over the Croatian tricolour. At the pole top, there is a devil with a trident. (Note: "By the grace of God and a stroke of luck" was actually an old Serbian and Croatian motto, which, inspired by heroic folk songs, Ban Jelačić cried out when crossing the Drava in 1848.)

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: Eugen Nonnenmacher.
Date: 18 April 1944.
Location: Mostar, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: "Croatian Regiment receives its flag. In front of the lined-up regiment, a group with the newly awarded flag. Minister Frković brings greetings of the homeland and speaks of the regime's deeds."

File source: NIOD / Beeldbank WO2, 20820.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Poglavnik poklanja zastavu 369. grenadirskom puku. Ministar Ivica Frković drži govor legionarima 369. puka "Vražje divizije" nakon predaje zastave, u Mostaru (Frković je bio i nadzornik divizije). Na bini iza ministra stoje (sleva nadesno) general-lajtnant Vilko Begić (doglavnik) i general-lajtnant Fric Najdholt, komandant divizije. Između bine i stegonoše stoji pukovnik Kurt Fišer, komandant puka. Puk je zastavu dobio "u počast staljingradskih junaka Hrvatske legije", odnosno 369. ojačanog hrvatskog pešadijskog puka, uništenog kod Staljingrada. (Podsetnik: "Vražja divizija" i njen prvi puk nasledili su broj 369 od uništene legije.) Na naličju zastave nalazi se natpis "Za poglavnika i za dom" sa monogramom Ante Pavelića, a na licu stoji natpis "Što Bog da i sreća junačka" (geslo pogrešno pripisano banu Jelačiću) sa grbom Hrvatske i brojem puka, preko hrvatske trobojke. Na vrhu koplja nalazi se đavo s trozupcem. (Napomena: "Što Bog da i sreća junačka" zapravo je staro srpsko i hrvatsko geslo, koje je, inspirisan junačkim narodnim pesmama, ban Jelačić uzviknuo prilikom prelaska Drave 1848. godine.)

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: Eugen Nonenmaher.
Datum: 18. april 1944.
Mesto: Mostar, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: "Hrvatski puk dobija svoju zastavu. Pred postrojenim pukom, grupa sa upravo dodeljenom zastavom. Ministar Frković donosi pozdrave domovine i govori o delima režima."

Izvor fajla: NIOD / Beeldbank WO2, 20820.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

26 August 2018

0359 | Photo | 342. Infanterie-Division



Operation "Mačva". In September 1941, the German 342nd Infantry Division was sent from France to Serbia, with the task of putting-down, with ruthless measures, the flaming Chetnik-Partisan uprising in the Mačva and Cer area, and creating a terrifying example for the entire population. The first operations that the division conducted upon its arrival in the country were the evacuation of Šabac, the mopping-up of the Sava–Drina bend (Operation "Mačva") and the mopping-up of the Cer Mountain (Operation "Cer Mountain"). At the beginning of the operations, the commanding general, former Austro-Hungarian officer Franz Böhme, ordered his subordinate commanders: "Your task is to cruise the land where streams of German blood flowed in 1914 due to the treachery of Serbs, men and women. You are the avengers of those dead. A terrifying example must be created for the entire Serbia, which must severely hit the entire population. Anyone who acts gently endangers the lives of his comrades. He will be held responsible, regardless of personality, and placed before a court-martial." (Böhme was actually induced to issue an order for mopping-up the area by Dr Harald Turner, a Privy Councillor and an SS-Brigadeführer, who wrote him the following: "My personal opinion is that a full evacuation in the area west of Šabac, in the Sava–Drina bend, should be carried out. Because, according to the reports and data that I have, which match, the greater part of the male population of this region is grouped into gangs and belongs to Mihailović's gangs located to the south, in the Cer Mountain. Children and women act as messengers, and they also take care of supplies. Therefore, the entire population must be punished, not just men.") A week after the operations began, the division commander, Lieutenant General Dr Hinghofer, reported to the commanding general: "During the evacuation of Šabac and the mopping-up of the Sava–Drina bend, the division had three men killed and 20 wounded. On the opposite side, 830 people were killed and 8400 prisoners were deported." Pictured, troops of the 342nd Infantry Division pass through a village in Mačva, next to a lawn covered with Serbian corpses.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: September/October 1941.
Location: unknown, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: no caption.

File source: eBay / miro-antik2012.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Operacija "Mačva". Septembra 1941. godine, u Srbiju je iz Francuske poslata nemačka 342. pešadijska divizija, sa zadatkom da bezobzirnim merama uguši rasplamsani četničko-partizanski ustanak na području Mačve i Cera, i stvori zastrašujući primer za celokupno stanovništvo. Prve akcije koje je po dolasku u zemlju divizija sprovela bile su evakuacija Šapca, čišćenje luka Sava–Drina (operacija "Mačva") i čišćenje planine Cera (operacija "Planina Cer"). Na početku operacija, komandujući general, bivši austrougarski oficir Franc Beme, podređenim komandantima je naredio: "Vaš je zadatak da prokrstarite zemljom u kojoj se 1914. potocima lila nemačka krv usled podmuklosti Srba, muškaraca i žena. Vi ste osvetnici tih mrtvih. Za celu Srbiju ima se stvoriti zastrašujući primer, koji mora najteže pogoditi celokupno stanovništvo. Svaki koji blago postupa greši o živote svojih drugova. On će biti pozvan na odgovornost, bez obzira na ličnost, i stavljen pod ratni sud." (Bemea je na izdavanje naredbe za čišćenje područja zapravo podstakao dr Harald Turner, državni savetnik i SS-brigadefirer, napisavši mu sledeće: "Moje je lično mišljenje da bi trebalo izvršiti potpunu evakuaciju u prostoru zapadno od Šapca, u luku između Save i Drine. Stoga što je, prema izveštajima i podacima kojim raspolažem, a koji se slažu, veći deo muškog stanovništva ovog kraja grupisan u bande i pripada Mihailovićevim bandama koje se nalaze južnije, u planini Ceru. Deca i žene održavaju vezu, a staraju se i o snabdevanju. Prema tome, mora iskusiti kaznu celokupno stanovništvo, a ne samo muškarci.") Nedelju dana nakon početka operacija, komandant divizije, general-lajtnant dr Hinghofer, raportirao je komandujućem generalu: "Prilikom evakuacije Šapca i čišćenja luka Sava–Drina divizija je imala tri poginula i 20 ranjenih. Na drugoj strani ubijeno je 830 ljudi i odvedeno 8400 uhapšenih." Na slici, trupe 342. pešadijske divizije prolaze kroz jedno selo u Mačvi, pored travnjaka posutog srpskim leševima.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: septembar/oktobar 1941.
Mesto: nepoznato, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: bez natpisa.

Izvor fajla: eBay / miro-antik2012.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

19 August 2018

0358 | Photo | Grenzwacht-Abschnitt XVIII



Partisan attack on Poganek. A touching Allied photograph of a Partisan doctor cleaning a German prisoner's wound. Only seemingly touching. The picture was published on 6 November 1944 in "Life" magazine, in a propaganda report on the Partisan attack on the Litija bridge (near Poganek, 20 September of the same year). It was taken by US correspondent John Phillips, who witnessed the action along with the head of the Anglo-American military mission at the Main Headquarters (of Slovenia), Captain James Goodwin (who was wounded in the leg on this occasion). The photo was published with the following caption: "In Partisan field hospital, a doctor dresses head wounds of a German prisoner. Hospital was set up in a two-room farmhouse. The Partisans wounded were in one room, the Germans in another. The Partisans could not stay overnight here because they knew that the Germans would kill the wounded. The wounded were carried back through the German lines in cart." The report was entitled: "Tito's men – Daring Yugoslav Partisans blow up German-held bridge." In reality, as Phillips testified in his book "Yugoslav Story" after the war, there was only one wounded German, an elderly man (a border guard), who ended up in a group of wounded Partisans after the attack, with whom he was put in the same room. (On the way to the improvised hospital, the German stuck close to the Americans, probably thinking that he would be safer with the Western Allies. Boy was he wrong!) Before continuing the retreat from the enemy territory, the Partisans – at US captain's suggestion – killed the prisoner! (The Partisan doctor initially suggested that the wounded German should be simply left behind, knowing that he would only be an unnecessary burden during the retreat, to which Captain Goodwin replied that he must be killed, since he, allegedly, picked up too much information about them. The doctor agreed.) Also, the Americans actually regarded the Partisans as semi-savages, of which the Partisans were aware. Phillips, for example, described the Partisan doctor in his book as a "civilized-looking man", alluding that the others did not share the same appearance. When Goodwin was wounded, he begged Phillips not to let the Partisans cut his legs off, as if their medics did not know what they were doing. (In the propaganda report, on the other hand, which portrayed the Germans as semi-savages, it was stated that he kept repeating that he did not want to be captured.) The antipathy was mutual; a quote from a political report of the Partisan (XV) division headquarters dated 24 September 1944: "During the advance to Styria, the head of the US mission [Goodwin] and some journalist [Phillips] were present the entire time. This journalist, an American, photographed everything he saw. Neither the division headquarters nor the brigade headquarters knew what kind of authority this man had. One time the journalist found a Partisan catching lice. He put a Titovka cap on his head and gestured him to do it faster, as if he was catching lice all over his shirt, while he photographed him. The Partisans did not regard the two Americans with affection at all because of their arrogant attitude." 

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: John Phillips.
Date: 20 September 1944.
Location: unknown (Litija), Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: Time-Life, 746352.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Partizanski napad na Poganek. Dirljiva saveznička fotografija partizanskog lekara koji čisti ranu nemačkom zarobljeniku. Samo naizgled dirljiva. Slika je objavljena 6. novembra 1944. godine u američkom časopisu "Život" (Life), u propagandnoj reportaži o partizanskom napadu na litijski most (kod Poganeka, 20. septembra iste godine). Snimio ju je američki dopisnik Džon Filips, koji je akciji prisustvovao zajedno sa šefom angloameričke vojne misije pri Glavnom štabu (Slovenije), kapetanom Džejmsom Gudvinom (koji je ovom prilikom ranjen u nogu). Fotografija je objavljena uz sledeći natpis: "U partizanskoj poljskoj bolnici, lekar previja rane na glavi nemačkom zarobljeniku. Bolnica je smeštena u dvosobnoj seoskoj kući. Ranjeni partizani su bili u jednoj sobi, a Nemci u drugoj. Partizani ovde nisu mogli prenoćiti jer su znali da bi Nemci pobili ranjenike. Ranjenici su kroz nemačke linije nazad prebačeni zaprežnim kolima." Naslov reportaže je glasio: "Titovi ljudi – Smeli jugoslovenski partizani dižu u vazduh most koji drže Nemci." U stvarnosti, kao što je Filips posle rata svedočio u svojoj knjizi "Jugoslovenska priča" (Yugoslav Story), bio je samo jedan ranjeni Nemac, stariji čovek (graničar), koji se posle napada obreo u grupi ranjenih partizana, s kojima je smešten u istu prostoriju. (Nemac se na putu do improvizovane bolnice sve vreme držao Amerikanaca, verovatno misleći da će pored zapadnih saveznika biti sigurniji. Kako se samo prevario!) Pre nego što su nastavili povlačenje sa neprijateljske teritorije, partizani su – na predlog američkog kapetana – zarobljenika ubili! (Partizanski lekar je prvobitno bio predložio da ranjenog Nemca jednostavno ostave za sobom, znajući da bi im bio samo nepotreban teret pri povlačenju, na šta je kapetan Gudvin odgovorio da on mora biti ubijen, jer je, navodno, saznao previše o njima. Lekar se složio.) Pored toga, Amerikanci su na partizane zapravo gledali kao na poludivljake, čega su partizani bili svesni. Filips, npr, u svojoj knjizi partizanskog lekara opisuje kao "čoveka koji je izgledao civilizovano", aludirajući na to da ostali nisu tako izgledali. Gudvin je po ranjavanju preklinjao Filipsa da ne dozvoli partizanima da mu odseku noge, kao da njihovi bolničari nisu znali šta rade. (U propagandnoj reportaži, s druge strane, u kojoj su Nemci prikazani kao poludivljaci, navedeno je da je ponavljao da ne želi da bude zarobljen.) Antipatije su bile obostrane; citat iz političkog izveštaja štaba partizanske (XV) divizije od 24. septembra 1944. godine: "Prilikom pohoda u Štajersku bio je čitavo vreme prisutan šef američke misije [Gudvin] i neki novinar [Filips]. Ovaj novinar, Amerikanac, snimao je sve što je video. Ni štab divizije ni štab brigade nisu znali kakva ovlaštenja ima ovaj čovek. Dogodio se slučaj da je novinar pronašao partizana koji je tamanio vaške. Stavio mu je titovku na glavu i pokazao da brže radi, kao da tamani vaške po košulji, a on ga je pri tom snimio. Partizani nisu nimalo sa simpatijama gledali ova dva Amerikanca zbog njihovog oholog držanja." 

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: Džon Filips.
Datum: 20. septembar 1944.
Mesto: nepoznato (Litija), Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: Time-Life, 746352.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

16 August 2018

0357 | Photo | Konzentrationslager Mauthausen



Mauthausen concentration camp. A battered Yugoslav Partisan, in rags, with eyes swollen from beatings, poses for a photo upon his arrival at the camp, in front of the so-called Wailing Wall. 

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: unknown.
Location: Mauthausen, Germany.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: National Archives, RG 549, Cases Tried, Box 345 / Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Koncentracioni logor Mauthauzen. Prebijeni jugoslovenski partizan, u ritama, očiju otečenih od batina, pozira za fotografiju po dolasku u logor, ispred tzv. zida plača. 

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: nepoznat.
Mesto: Mauthauzen, Nemačka.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: National Archives, RG 549, Cases Tried, Box 345 / Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

0356 | Photo | Konzentrationslager Mauthausen



Mauthausen concentration camp. The Reichsführer-SS visits the camp with officers of the SS Division "Reich". On a nice spring day, like a teacher showing the sights to his students on an excursion, Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler shows the concentration camp to the officers of his "Reich" Division, whose troops rest in Upper Danube after the invasion of Yugoslavia. First row, left to right: SS-Hauptsturmführer Fritz Klingenberg, commander of the 2nd Company, Motorcycle Battalion (with a Knight's Cross around his neck, awarded to him by the Führer for taking Belgrade by bluff), SS-Oberführer Peter Hansen, commander of the Artillery Regiment, Reichsführer-SS Himmler, SS-Brigadeführer Franz Kutschera, Deputy Gauleiter of Carinthia and Chief of Civil Administration in Upper Carniola (a mass murderer, liquidated two and a half years later in Warsaw), and SS-Obersturmführer Fritz Vogt, commander of the 2nd Company, Reconnaissance Battalion. Second row, second from the right: SS-Sturmbannführer August Schmidhuber, commander of the II Battalion, 11th Infantry Regiment – future commander of the "Prinz Eugen" Division. Third from the right: SS-Sturmbannführer Franz Ziereis, camp commandant.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: 31 May 1941.
Location: Mauthausen, Germany.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: Bundesarchiv, Bild 192-040.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Koncentracioni logor Mauthauzen. Rajhsfirer SS-a u poseti logoru sa oficirima SS-divizije "Rajh". Po lepom prolećnom danu, poput učitelja koji pokazuje đacima znamenitosti na ekskurziji, rajhsfirer SS-a Hajnrih Himler pokazuje koncentracioni logor oficirima svoje "Rajh" divizije, čije se trupe u Gornjem Podunavlju odmaraju posle invazije na Jugoslaviju. Prvi red, sleva nadesno: SS-hauptšturmfirer Fric Klingenberg, komandir 2. čete motociklističkog bataljona (sa Viteškim krstom oko vrata, kojim ga je firer odlikovao za zauzimanje Beograda na blef), SS-oberfirer Peter Hansen, komandant artiljerijskog puka, rajhsfirer SS-a Himler, SS-brigadefirer Franc Kučera, zamenik gaulajtera Koruške i šef civilne uprave u Gorenjskoj (masovni ubica, likvidiran dve i po godine kasnije u Varšavi), i SS-oberšturmfirer Fric Fogt, komandir 2. čete izviđačkog bataljona. U drugom redu, drugi zdesna: SS-šturmbanfirer August Šmidhuber, komandant II bataljona 11. pešadijskog puka – budući komandant "Princ Eugen" divizije. Treći zdesna: SS-šturmbanfirer Franc Cirajs, komandant logora.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: 31. maj 1941.
Mesto: Mauthauzen, Nemačka.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: Bundesarchiv, Bild 192-040.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

14 August 2018

0355 | Photo | Unidentified



A young Hungarian German (possibly from Bačka), former member of the German Youth (DJ, ethnic German equivalent of the Hitler Youth, HJ), poses for a photo in SS uniform, in a garden under the linden trees, with a Croatian coat of arms on his sleeve and a DJ Achievement Badge on his chest, as a member of one of the Bosnian-Herzegovinian (officially Croatian), Muslim SS divisions ("Handschar" or "Kama").

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: 1944.
Location: unknown.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: eBay.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Mladi mađarski Nemac (moguće iz Bačke), bivši pripadnik Nemačke omladine (DJ-a, folksdojčerskog ekvivalenta Hitlerovoj omladini, HJ-u), pozira za fotografiju u SS-uniformi, u jednom dvorištu pod lipama, sa hrvatskim grbom na rukavu i Značkom za posebna dostignuća u DJ-u na prsima, kao pripadnik jedne od bosansko-hercegovačkih (zvanično hrvatskih), muslimanskih SS-divizija ("Handžar" ili "Kama").

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: 1944.
Mesto: nepoznato.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: eBay.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

13 August 2018

0354 | Photo | Narodnooslobodilačka vojska Jugoslavije



Young Slovenian Partisan girls, captured by the troops of the SS and Police Commander of the Alpine Region, anxiously look at the German policemen, with their hands tied behind their backs, waiting for their inevitable fate.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: unknown.
Location: unknown, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: "Deutsche und Partisanen" (p. 35).

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Mlade slovenačke partizanke, zarobljene od strane trupa komandanta SS-a i policije Alpske oblasti, zabrinuto gledaju u nemačke policajce, s rukama vezanim na leđima, čekajući svoju neizbežnu sudbinu.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: nepoznat.
Mesto: nepoznato, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: "Deutsche und Partisanen" (str. 35).

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

06 August 2018

0353 | Photo | Höherer SS- und Polizeiführer Alpenland



Partisan attack on Kočevje and Operation "Kočevje". On the night between 9 and 10 December 1943, the Partisan XIV Division (three brigades strong: the I, II, and XIII) attacked the German garrison in Kočevje (three companies strong: the 2nd Company of the 19th SS Police Regiment and the 3rd and 7th companies of the Slovenian Home Guard). The incomparably superior Partisan forces captured relatively quickly all enemy strongholds – except the old castle, to which the garrison remnants withdrew. The Partisans shelled, attacked and torched the castle, but, due to its thick walls, failed to finish off the besieged crew; from a XIV Division report, the third day of the siege: "The castle walls are about 2-3 metres thick, even a 100 mm howitzer cannot break through them. We had to gradually demolish the walls with howitzers. The walls were demolished, with howitzers, on two sides of the castle, and an opening was made. However, everything was destroyed inside the castle so much that our men, having penetrated into the castle, could not go any further. Additionally, the Germans were closing all openings very quickly. Our men managed to set the castle on fire in two places during the night, after they charged through the castle doors that were smashed by a howitzer. Already half of the castle is in flames." And then, when everyone expected that the castle would finally fall, German reinforcements arrived in the nick of time and forced the Partisans to retreat. (According to the Partisans, their "units evacuated themselves from the city due to too much pressure"; according to the Germans, "when the first tanks appeared, the bandits turned to wild flight.") The reinforcements, which, thanks to the poor Partisan defence and intelligence service, relatively easily broke through to the city, consisted of the 314th Regiment of the 162nd (Turkestani) Infantry Division, a reinforced battalion of the 19th SS Police Regiment, the 13th Police Armoured Company and the 27th and 28th companies of the Slovenian Home Guard. Having found out about the Kočevje debacle, the Partisan Main Headquarters immediately ordered: "1. Find the culprits responsible for the relatively easy German penetration from Ljubljana through Turjak, check how the roads were dug and mined, and who is responsible for the superficiality and inadequate resistance of the forces in charge of the security in that sector. 2. Launch an investigation on who is responsible for the slow and reckless reaction in Kočevje itself, to the news of the German penetration from Ribnica. 3. Punish the responsible leaders and, if necessary, replace them. 4. Prepare everything for a renewed attack on Kočevje immediately..." In this action, besides failing to complete their task and destroying half of the city along the way, the Partisans also lost their division commander, Mirko Bračič. He was killed by his comrade Franc Bobnar Gedžo, commander of the XIII Brigade, because of his cruel treatment of his own fighters, whom he shot for trifles, mostly because of their objections, or personal grudges. (In memory of the killed commander, officially "fallen at the head of his fighters", the Main Headquarters gave the XIII Brigade, i.e. his killer's brigade, the name "Mirko Bračič". Bobnar later committed suicide, and Bračič was proclaimed a national hero.) Pictured, German troops chat while having a snack among the ruins in front of the old castle, after relieving the besieged garrison. In the foreground, a member of the 19th SS Police Regiment, with his mouth full, passes by a captured Italian L6/40 tank, now in the service of the German police. (Notes: The source of the photograph, the Museum of Yugoslavia, incorrectly described this undamaged tank as being destroyed, by fighters of the XIV Division. The photographer, SS war correspondent Kleine, incorrectly stated in his caption that the Partisan siege lasted for 10 days, instead of three.)

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: Kleine.
Date: 12 December 1943.
Location: Kočevje, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: "While liberating a city, police relieve their 10 days besieged comrades. [...]"

File source: Muzej Jugoslavije / Znaci, 7676.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Partizanski napad na Kočevje i operacija "Kočevje". U noći između 9. i 10. decembra 1943. godine, partizanska XIV divizija (jačine tri brigade: I, II i XIII) napala je nemački garnizon u Kočevju (jačine tri čete: 2. četa 19. policijskog SS-puka i 3. i 7. četa Slovenačkog domobranstva). Neuporedivo jače partizanske snage zauzele su relativno brzo sva neprijateljska uporišta – osim starog zamka, u koji su se ostaci garnizona povukli. Partizani su zamak granatirali, napadali i palili, ali, zbog debelih zidova, nisu uspevali da dokrajče opkoljenu posadu; iz izveštaja XIV divizije, trećeg dana opsade: "Zidovi zamka debeli su 2-3 metra, tako da ih ni haubica od 100 mm ne može probiti. Zidove smo morali tek postepeno rušiti haubicama. Na dve strane zamka su zidovi, pomoću haubica, srušeni i napravljen je otvor. Ipak je bilo u unutrašnjosti zamka sve toliko porušeno da naši, kad su prodrli u zamak, nisu mogli dalje. Pored toga, Nemci sve otvore velikom brzinom zatrpavaju. Naši su uspeli da tokom noći zapale zamak na tri mesta, i to nakon juriša kroz vrata zamka koja su bila razbijena pomoću haubice. Sada se već pola zamka nalazi u plamenu." A zatim, kada su svi očekivali da će zamak konačno pasti, Nemcima je u poslednji čas stiglo pojačanje i prinudilo partizane na povlačenje. (Prema partizanima, njihove "jedinice su se, usled suviše jakog pritiska, evakuisale iz grada"; prema Nemcima, "kada su se pojavili prvi tenkovi, banditi su se dali u divlji beg".) Pojačanje, koje se, zahvaljujući lošoj partizanskoj odbrani i obaveštajnoj službi, s relativnom lakoćom probilo do grada, činili su 314. puk 162. (turkestanske) pešadijske divizije, ojačani bataljon 19. policijskog SS-puka, 13. policijska oklopna četa i 27. i 28. četa Slovenačkog domobranstva. Saznavši za debakl svojih jedinica u Kočevju, partizanski glavni štab je odmah naredio: "1. Treba potražiti odgovorne krivce za srazmerno lak prodor Nemaca iz Ljubljane preko Turjaka, izvršiti kontrolu kako su putevi bili prokopani i minirani, i ko je odgovoran za površnost i nedovoljnu otpornost snaga koje su se nalazile na obezbeđenju u tom pravcu. 2. Treba povesti istragu o odgovornosti za sporost i lakomislenost u samom Kočevju kad su stigle vesti o prodiranju Nemaca iz Ribnice. 3. Odgovorne rukovodioce treba kazniti i, prema potrebi, smeniti. 4. Odmah treba pripremiti sve za ponovan napad na Kočevje..." Osim što nisu ispunili zadatak, razrušivši usput pola grada, partizani su u ovoj akciji izgubili i svog komandanta divizije, Mirka Bračiča. Ubio ga je njegov saborac Franc Bobnar Gedžo, komandant XIII brigade, zbog okrutnog ophođenja prema sopstvenim borcima, koje je streljao zbog najobičnijih sitnica, uglavnom prigovora, ili ličnog zameranja. (U spomen na ubijenog komandanta, zvanično "palog na čelu svojih boraca", glavni štab je XIII brigadi, tj. brigadi njegovog ubice, dao ime "Mirko Bračič". Bobnar je kasnije izvršio samoubistvo, a Bračič je proglašen za narodnog heroja.) Na slici, nemačke trupe ćaskaju dok užinaju među ruševinama ispred starog zamka, po oslobađanju opkoljenog garnizona. U prvom planu, jedan pripadnik 19. policijskog SS-puka, punih usta, prolazi pored zaplenjenog italijanskog tenka L6/40, sada u službi nemačke policije. (Napomene: u izvoru fotografije, Muzeju Jugoslavije, ovaj neoštećeni tenk je netačno opisan kao uništen, od boraca XIV divizije; autor fotografije, ratni dopisnik SS-a Klajne, u svom je natpisu netačno naveo da je partizanska opsada trajala 10 dana, umesto tri.)

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: Klajne.
Datum: 12. decembar 1943.
Mesto: Kočevje, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: "Pri oslobađanju jednog grada, policija oslobađa svoje 10 dana opkoljene drugove. [...]"

Izvor fajla: Muzej Jugoslavije / Znaci, 7676.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

03 August 2018

0352 | Press | Narodnooslobodilačka vojska Jugoslavije



Marshal Tito – He stands at the crossroads of two empires. A "Time" magazine cover dated 9 October 1944, with a portrait of the Yugoslav Partisan leader, Marshal Josip Broz Tito (painted by Russian American artist Boris Chaliapin, based on a photograph by John Phillips dated 7 July 1944). (Note: The "two empires" are the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom.)

Text © Ivan Ž.

Artist: Boris Chaliapin.
Date: 1944.
Location: unknown/fictional.
Original text: "Marshal Tito – He stands at the crossroads of two empires."

File source: "Time" 15/XLIV.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Maršal Tito – On stoji na raskrsnici dveju imperija. Naslovna strana američkog časopisa "Vreme" (Time) od 9. oktobra 1944. godine, sa portretom vođe jugoslovenskih partizana, maršala Josipa Broza Tita (koji je naslikao rusko-američki umetnik Boris Šaljapin, prema jednoj od fotografija Džona Filipsa od 7. jula 1944. godine). (Napomena: "dve imperije" su Sovjetski Savez i Velika Britanija.)

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Umetnik: Boris Šaljapin.
Datum: 1944.
Mesto: nepoznato/izmišljeno.
Originalni tekst: "Maršal Tito – On stoji na raskrsnici dveju imperija."

Izvor fajla: "Time" 15/XLIV.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

0351 | Press | Jugoslovenska vojska u otadžbini



Mihailovich, Yugoslavia's unconquered – He watches from his mountain walls. A "Time" magazine cover dated 25 May 1942, with a (not quite faithful) portrait of the Yugoslav Chetnik leader, Divisional General Dragoljub "Draža" Mihailović (painted by Serbian American artist Vuk Vuchinich, based on the general's pre-war photographs). The portrait of the famous guerrilla leader was also published by the Germans, the following year, in one of their first major reports on the fighting against guerrillas in Yugoslavia. (Note: "He watches from his mountain walls" is a quote from Tennyson's "The Eagle", to which the magazine compared the Yugoslav general.)

Text © Ivan Ž.

Artist: Vuk Vuchinich.
Date: 1942.
Location: unknown/fictional.
Original text: "Mihailovich, Yugoslavia's unconquered – He watches from his mountain walls."

File source: "Time" 71/XXXIX.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Mihailović, neporaženi Jugosloven – On vreba sa svojih planina. Naslovna strana američkog časopisa "Vreme" (Time) od 25. maja 1942. godine, sa (ne baš vernim) portretom vođe jugoslovenskih četnika, divizijskog generala Dragoljuba – Draže Mihailovića (koji je naslikao srpsko-američki umetnik Vuk Vučinić, prema generalovim predratnim fotografijama). Portret čuvenog ustaničkog vođe objavili su i Nemci, naredne godine, u jednoj od svojih prvih velikih reportaža o borbama protiv ustanika u Jugoslaviji. (Napomena: "On vreba sa svojih planina" je citat iz Tenisonovog "Orla", sa kojim je jugoslovenski general u časopisu poređen.)

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Umetnik: Vuk Vučinić.
Datum: 1942.
Mesto: nepoznato/izmišljeno.
Originalni tekst: "Mihailović, neporaženi Jugosloven – On vreba sa svojih planina."

Izvor fajla: "Time" 71/XXXIX.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.