31 October 2018

0379 | Photo | SS-Freiwilligen-Division "Prinz Eugen"



Members of the SS Division "Prinz Eugen" transmitting a message through photophone (Lichtsprechgerät 80), a device that uses light beams to transmit speech over long distances. This kind of technology was extremely helpful to the German troops in the hills of Yugoslavia, because it allowed easy and fast transmission of messages, without the possibility of interception by the enemy.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: Eugen Nonnenmacher.
Date: 1943.
Location: unknown, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: "The speaking light. The most modern technology is found in the German Armed Forces, deployed and used. Like a speaking light device. A grenadier reads the message, just brought in by a messenger, into the microphone, and the light-speaking device converts the words into rays that are reconverted into sound by the remote receiving device. In this way, the distances are easily bridged and the speed of action in battle-decisive moments is determined by this ingenious and the most modern equipment, which cannot be intercepted by the enemy."

File source: Michael Sharpe, Brian L. Davis, "Das Reich" (p. 73).

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Pripadnici SS-divizije "Princ Eugen" prenose poruku putem fotofona (Lichtsprechgerät 80), uređaja koji svetlosnim zracima prenosi govor preko velikih udaljenosti. Ovakva tehnologija bila je od velike pomoći nemačkoj vojsci u brdima Jugoslavije, jer je omogućavala lak i brz prenos poruka, bez mogućnosti presretanja od strane neprijatelja.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: Eugen Nonenmaher.
Datum: 1943.
Mesto: nepoznato, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: "Svetlo koje govori. Najsavremenija tehnologija nalazi se u nemačkim oružanim snagama, u upotrebi i primeni. Poput svetlosnog uređaja koji govori. Grenadir čita poruku, koju je upravo doneo kurir, u mikrofon, a svetlosno-govorni uređaj pretvara reči u zrake koje vraća u zvuk udaljeni prijemnik. Na ovaj način daljine su lako premostive, a brzinu dejstva u odlučujućim trenucima borbe određuje ova genijalna i najsavremenija oprema, koju neprijatelj ne može presretati."

Izvor fajla: Michael Sharpe, Brian L. Davis, "Das Reich" (str. 73).

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

29 October 2018

0378 | Photo | Srpski dobrovoljački korpus



Young Serbian volunteers posing on a staircase with a cute little girl (probably the daughter of one of them). Like other members of the Serbian Volunteer Corps, the men wear uniforms of the Yugoslav Army, with a Serbian coat of arms on their caps and a volunteer cross on their chests.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: 1943/1944.
Location: unknown, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: Stevan Piroćanac, "Srpski dobrovoljci 1941–1945 u reči i slici" (p. 151).

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Mladi srpski dobrovoljci poziraju na stepeništu sa slatkom malom devojčicom (verovatno ćerkom jednog od njih). Kao i ostali pripadnici Srpskog dobrovoljačkog korpusa, mladići nose uniforme jugoslovenske vojske, sa srpskim grbom na kapi i dobrovoljačkim krstom na prsima.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: 1943/1944.
Mesto: nepoznato, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: Stevan Piroćanac, "Srpski dobrovoljci 1941–1945 u reči i slici" (str. 151).

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

28 October 2018

0377 | Photo | Höherer SS- und Polizeiführer Alpenland



Operation "Kočevje". The SS and Police Commander of the Alpine Region, SS-Gruppenführer Erwin Rösener (in a muddy leather overcoat), and the commander of the 162nd (Turkestani) Infantry Division, Major General Oskar von Niedermayer (in greatcoat), observe a Panzer IV of the 13th Police Armoured Company (packed with mountain troopers of the 19th SS Police Regiment) crossing the river Rinža – on their way to the Kočevje castle, which is besieged by the Partisans (on the far left: a motorcyclist armed with an MP 35 submachine gun). (Note: this is a rare example of an SS and police commander personally participating in an anti-partisan action.)

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: 12 December 1943.
Location: Kočevje, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: no caption.

File source: eBay / bobbau-militaria.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Operacija "Kočevje". Komandant SS-a i policije Alpske oblasti, SS-grupenfirer Ervin Rezener (u blatnjavom kožnom mantilu), i komandant 162. (turkestanske) pešadijske divizije, general-major Oskar fon Nidermajer (u šinjelu), posmatraju prelazak jednog pancera IV iz 13. policijske oklopne čete (nakrcanog brdskim lovcima 19. policijskog SS-puka) preko reke Rinže – na putu ka kočevskom zamku, koji se nalazi pod partizanskom opsadom (sasvim levo: jedan motociklista naoružan automatom MP 35). (Napomena: ovo je redak primer ličnog učešća jednog komandanta SS-a i policije u akciji protiv partizana.)

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: 12. decembar 1943.
Mesto: Kočevje, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: bez natpisa.

Izvor fajla: eBay / bobbau-militaria.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

26 October 2018

0376 | Photo | SS-Fallschirmjäger-Bataillon 500



Operation "Knight's Move". Members of the 500th SS Parachute Battalion jump out of "Aunt Jus" (Ju 52 aircrafts) of the 4th Transport Wing over Drvar (in the foreground: a DFS 230 glider of the 1st Airborne Wing). This famous German operation was named, very symbolically, after the knight's move in chess (Rösselsprung), the only move in the game that allows jumping over other pieces and into the desired square – just like the paratroopers jumped into the town of Drvar. (In the Yugoslav historiography, however, a wrong, literal translation of the operation's name was accepted and used for decades: "konjićev skok", meaning "little horse's jump". Namely, the German compound "Rösselsprung" consists of words that, depending on the context, may be translated as "little horse" [Rössel] and "jump" [Sprung], but the compound itself, which is a chess term, is translated as "knight's move" or, possibly, "horse's move".) Pictured is the second wave of paratroopers, who landed near the cemetery around noon, and were met by Partisan fire while in the air, suffering heavy casualties. Among others, the deputy battalion commander, SS-Hauptsturmführer Obermaier, was also killed during the jump.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: Karnath.
Date: 25 May 1944.
Location: Drvar, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: "Airborne troops and paratroopers smash Tito's headquarters. The jump into the battle. From transport planes, the German paratroopers dive into the valley, where Josip Broz hides his 'bodyguard'."

File source: NIOD / Beeldbank WO2, 20757.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Operacija "Potez skakačem". Pripadnici 500. padobranskog SS-bataljona iskaču iz "tetaka Ju" (aviona Ju 52) 4. transportnog puka nad Drvarom (u prvom planu: jedrilica DFS 230 iz 1. vazdušno-desantnog puka). Ova čuvena nemačka operacija nazvana je, veoma simbolično, po šahovskom potezu skakačem (Rösselsprung), jedinom potezu u igri kojim se preskaču ostale figure i uskače u željeno polje – baš kao što su i padobranci uskakali u grad Drvar. (U jugoslovenskoj istoriografiji je, međutim, usvojen i decenijama korišćen pogrešan, bukvalan prevod naziva operacije: "konjićev skok". Naime, nemačka složenica "reselšprung" [Rösselsprung] sastoji se iz reči koje se, u zavisnosti od konteksta, prevode i kao "konjić" [Rössel] i "skok" [Sprung], ali sama složenica, koja je šahovski pojam, prevodi se kao "potez skakačem", ili, eventualno, "potez konjem".) Na slici je prikazan drugi talas padobranaca, koji je oko podneva spušten u blizini groblja, i još u vazduhu bio dočekan partizanskim rafalima, pretrpevši osetne gubitke. Između ostalih, prilikom skoka je poginuo i zamenik komandanta bataljona, SS-hauptšturmfirer Obermajer.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: Karnat.
Datum: 25. maj 1944.
Mesto: Drvar, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: "Vazdušno-desantne jedinice i padobranci razbijaju Titov štab. Skok u borbu. Iz transportnih aviona obrušavaju se nemački padobranci u dolinu, u kojoj Josip Broz krije svoju 'telesnu gardu'."

Izvor fajla: NIOD / Beeldbank WO2, 20757.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

25 October 2018

0375 | Photo | 183. Infanterie-Division



Operation 25. With bayonets on their rifles and wet from the rain, German soldiers, members of the Bicycle Squadron, 183rd Infantry Division, enter the town of Ptuj, cautiously observing the streets and windows (on the right: signposts for Ormož, Zagreb, Budapest, Maribor, Rogaška Slatina and Ljubljana).

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: Robert Weber.
Date: 8 April 1941.
Location: Ptuj, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: "This Yugoslav town on the Drava, which was first inhabited by ethnic Germans, represents an important [...] point, as the signposts show. It was therefore defended by the Yugoslavs even in the streets. Men of a reconnaissance team fighting the scattered Yugoslav troops."

File source: Nationaal Archief, 27021A 033.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Operacija 25. Sa bajonetima na puškama, pokisli nemački vojnici, pripadnici biciklističkog eskadrona 183. pešadijske divizije, ulaze u grad Ptuj, obazrivo osmatrajući ulice i prozore (desno: putokazi za Ormož, Zagreb, Budimpeštu, Maribor, Rogašku Slatinu i Ljubljanu).

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: Robert Veber.
Datum: 8. april 1941.
Mesto: Ptuj, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: "Ovaj jugoslovenski grad na Dravi, koji su prvi nastanili folksdojčeri, predstavlja važnu [...] tačku, kao što se vidi po putokazima. Zato su ga Jugosloveni branili i na ulicama. Pripadnici jedne izvidnice u borbama sa rasutim jugoslovenskim jedinicama."

Izvor fajla: Nationaal Archief, 27021A 033.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

24 October 2018

0374 | Photo | 1. Gebirgs-Division



Operation "Ball Lightning". Like a snow avalanche, the white motorised columns of the 1st Mountain Division slide down the Sandžak hills towards the units of the II Proletarian Division, at the beginning of the operation named after the well known atmospheric phenomenon, the unpredictable and deadly ball lightning (Kugelblitz). The German attack was indeed sudden, powerful and lethal: during the fighting for Prijepolje, on the first day of the operation, the surprised I Šumadija Brigade lost two-thirds of its men. The Partisans were defending desperately, getting killed, jumping in panic into the Lim and disappearing in the dark waters of the icy river. The massacre of the smashed Partisan units continued on the following day; a quote from the diary of the deputy commander of the II Proletarian Brigade, Miodrag Milovanović Lune: "The Germans made a breakthrough early in the morning and stormed to Pljevlja by road. Already at 2 p.m., they were in Pljevlja. They surprised our men at Jabuka, finding entire columns of supplies and men on the road. Men couldn't believe that the tanks were German. Some tried to stop them waving their hands for a lift, while the Germans, those bandits and butchers, killed whoever they wanted and however they wanted. They simply sat on tanks and, like hunters, shot with pistols whoever they liked. They called the Partisans to come and take a ride on their tanks, pushing down the road through our columns, while our men, having spotted the tanks, fled in all directions."

Text © Ivan Ž. / Miodrag Milovanović Lune.

Photographer: Günther Thiede.
Date: 4 December 1943.
Location: unknown (Prijepolje), Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: Narodowe Archiwum Cyfrowe, 2-541.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Operacija "Loptasta munja". Poput snežne lavine obrušavaju se bele motorizovane kolone 1. brdske divizije niz zavejana brda Sandžaka prema jedinicama II proleterske divizije, na početku operacije nazvane po poznatom atmosferskom fenomenu, nepredvidivoj i ubitačnoj loptastoj munji (Kugelblitz). Nemački napad je zaista bio iznenadan, silovit i smrtonosan: u borbama za Prijepolje, prvog dana operacije, zatečena I šumadijska brigada izgubila je dve trećine svog ljudstva. Partizani su se očajnički branili, ginuli, panično skakali u Lim i nestajali u mutnoj vodi ledene reke. Masakr razbijenih partizanskih jedinica nastavljen je i sutradan; citat iz dnevnika zamenika komandanta II proleterske brigade, Miodraga Milovanovića Luneta: "Nemci su izjutra rano napravili proboj i projurili drumom za Pljevlja. Već u 14 časova oni su bili u Pljevljima. Na Jabuci su naše iznenadili i čitave kolone komore i ljudstva našli su na drumu. Ljudi uopšte nisu verovali da su to nemački tenkovi. Neki su ih zaustavljali i mahali rukama da ih povezu, a Nemci, banditi i kasapi, ubijali su koga su hteli i kako su hteli. Prosto su sedeli na tenkovima i kao lovci ubijali iz revolvera koga im se svidi. Vikali su na partizane da dođu da ih vozaju na tenkovima i tako su gurali cestom kroz naše kolone, a ljudstvo je, videvši tenkove, bežalo na sve strane."

Tekst © Ivan Ž. / Miodrag Milovanović Lune.

Fotograf: Ginter Tide.
Datum: 4. decembar 1943.
Mesto: nepoznato (Prijepolje), Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: Narodowe Archiwum Cyfrowe, 2-541.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

22 October 2018

0373 | Photo | Narodnooslobodilačka vojska Jugoslavije



Operation "White". Four unknown men, Partisans and (or) their aides, hanged (in pairs) by members of the German-Croatian "Devil's Division" in front of the command post in Bosanska Krupa (at the same spot where the 17-year-old Partisan girl Lepa Radić was hanged).

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: February 1943.
Location: Bosanska Krupa, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: Janusz Piekalkiewicz, "Krieg auf dem Balkan" (p. 141).

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Operacija "Belo". Četvorica nepoznatih muškaraca, partizana i (ili) njihovih pomagača, obešenih (u parovima) od strane pripadnika nemačko-hrvatske "Vražje divizije" pred zgradom komande u Bosanskoj Krupi (na istom mestu na kojem je obešena i sedamnaestogodišnja partizanka Lepa Radić).

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: februar 1943.
Mesto: Bosanska Krupa, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: Janusz Piekalkiewicz, "Krieg auf dem Balkan" (str. 141).

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

16 October 2018

0372 | Photo | 21. Waffen-Gebirgs-Division der SS "Skanderbeg" (albanische Nr. 1)



Operation "Daredevil". An extremely rare shot of members of the Kosovo Albanian SS Division "Skanderbeg" in the company of Yugoslav Chetniks (a couple of local men, probably used as scouts), during lunch at the Čakor Pass (outside the frame, there are also Albanian militiamen and troops of the 181st infantry and "Prinz Eugen" divisions).

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: Ernst A. Zwilling.
Date: July 1944.
Location: Čakor (Plav), Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: ECPAD, LFT SO F2677 L24.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Operacija "Drznik". Izuzetno redak snimak pripadnika kosovsko-albanske SS-divizije "Skenderbeg" u društvu jugoslovenskih četnika (par lokalnih mladića, verovatno korišćenih za izviđanje), za vreme ručka na Čakoru (van kadra se nalaze i albanski milicioneri, kao i trupe 181. pešadijske i "Princ Eugen" divizije).

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: Ernst A. Cviling.
Datum: jul 1944.
Mesto: Čakor (Plav), Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: ECPAD, LFT SO F2677 L24.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

11 October 2018

0371 | Photo | Infanterie-Regiment "Großdeutschland" (mot.)



Execution of hostages in Pančevo. Young Germans, members of the elite "Großdeutschland" Regiment, escort a group of civilians, Serbs and Jews, to the gallows at the Orthodox cemetery in Pančevo. Among the hostages, there are professors, students, clerks, craftsmen... These poor people would be hanged in retaliation for a rebel attack on German soldiers, in which one soldier was killed and one was wounded, and for "committing the crime of violence against ethnic Germans" (i.e. for the riots caused by the March coup and the execution of nine armed ethnic Germans during the German invasion, which was carried out by the Yugoslav troops). In spite of the horrible fate and injustice – being condemned to death for chauvinist-propaganda reasons – the hostages went to their execution peacefully, holding their heads high. The author of the photograph, war correspondent Gerhard Gronefeld, testified the same thing after the war: "It was astonishing to me that they went to death with such dignity. Some of them even shouted 'Long live Yugoslavia!' I wonder if at least one German would have died a dignified death like that."

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: Gerhard Gronefeld.
Date: 22 April 1941.
Location: Pančevo, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: Deutsches Historisches Museum, GG 387/22.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Pogubljenje talaca u Pančevu. Mladi Nemci, pripadnici elitnog puka "Velika Nemačka", sprovode grupu civila, Srba i Jevreja, na vešala na pravoslavnom groblju u Pančevu. Među taocima su profesori, studenti, činovnici, zanatlije... Ovi nesrećnici biće obešeni u cilju odmazde za ustanički napad na nemačke vojnike, u kojem je jedan vojnik ubijen i jedan ranjen, i zbog "vršenja zločina nasilja nad folksdojčerima" (tj. zbog nereda prouzrokovanih martovskim pučem i pogubljenja devetorice naoružanih folksdojčera za vreme nemačke invazije, koje je izvršila jugoslovenska vojska). Uprkos strašnoj sudbini i nepravdi – osudi na smrt iz šovinističko-propagandnih razloga – taoci su na pogubljenje otišli mirno, uzdignutih glava. O tome je posle rata svedočio i autor ove fotografije, ratni dopisnik Gerhard Gronefeld: "Za mene je bilo zadivljujuće to što su tako uspravno odlazili u smrt. Neki od njih su čak uzviknuli 'Živela Jugoslavija!' Pitam se da li bi ijedan Nemac tako dostojanstveno poginuo."

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: Gerhard Gronefeld.
Datum: 22. april 1941.
Mesto: Pančevo, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: Deutsches Historisches Museum, GG 387/22.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

05 October 2018

0370 | Photo | 13. SS-Freiwilligen b. h. Gebirgs-Division (Kroatien)



Operation "Sava". After a hard, seven-month training in France and Germany, bloody mutiny, political-religious brainwashing, march through Syrmia and cleansing of the Bosut Forest – the stirred-up, impatient and armed-to-the-teeth Bosnian SS volunteers finally return home, ready to fight. Upon arriving in Brčko, the new headquarters of the 13th SS Division, the volunteers take over the watch at the Sava Bridge, at the town entrance. (Note: instead of the usual hand grenades, some of the soldiers stuck trench knives in their belts.)

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: Eugen Nonnenmacher.
Date: 15 March 1944.
Location: Brčko, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: "They have returned, ready to fight! Immediately upon arriving, a detachment takes over the watch in front of an important bridge at the town entrance."

File source: NIOD / Beeldbank WO2, 3616.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Operacija "Sava". Posle naporne, sedmomesečne obuke u Francuskoj i Nemačkoj, krvave pobune, političko-verskog ispiranja mozga, marša kroz Srem i čišćenja Bosutskih šuma – nahuškani, nestrpljivi i do zuba naoružani bosanski SS-dobrovoljci konačno se vraćaju kući, za borbu spremni. Po dolasku u Brčko, novo sedište 13. SS-divizije, dobrovoljci preuzimaju stražu kod Savskog mosta, na ulazu u grad. (Napomena: neki od vojnika su, umesto uobičajenih ručnih bombi, za pojas zadenuli rovovske noževe.)

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: Eugen Nonenmaher.
Datum: 15. mart 1944.
Mesto: Brčko, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: "Vratili su se, za borbu spremni! Odmah po dolasku, jedan odred preuzima stražu ispred važnog mosta na ulazu u grad."

Izvor fajla: NIOD / Beeldbank WO2, 3616.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

04 October 2018

0369 | Photo | SS-Freiwilligen-Division "Prinz Eugen"



Operation "Black". The commander of the SS Division "Prinz Eugen", SS-Gruppenführer Artur Phleps (on the right), in conversation with the assistant to the division chief of staff (O1), SS-Hauptsturmführer Eggert Neumann, during the cleansing of Eastern Herzegovina from Chetnik units. The photo was taken by SS-Obersturmführer Anton Wickl, commander of the division's war correspondent platoon, on the second day of the operation (16 May 1943), at the outskirts of Bileća. On this day, the Commander-in-Chief South-East informed the High Command: "The Chetniks are retreating before the SS division with Italian help to the south-east." (Although the disarming of the Chetniks had been planned since February, Italian commanders still opposed its implementation, believing that it would only strengthen the Partisan forces and increase the already critical situation in their territory.) Phleps particularly had problems with the Italians in Bileća; a quote from the book "Forward, Prinz Eugen!" by Otto Kumm: "On 16 May, the 2nd regiment reached the town of Bileća, through Fatnica and Plana. The Italian division commander made General Phleps, who followed behind the vanguard, wait 20 minutes at the edge of the town. Hauptsturmführer Neumann, who had landed in a Stork in Bileća to meet with the Italians, was forced to take off. The Italians did not want to allow passage through Bileća. General Phleps requested a Stuka squadron, which then circled over Bileća, the division's armoured company was deployed in the town's outskirts, demonstrating the seriousness of the situation to the Italians – as a final ultimatum – and only then the advance was finally allowed to continue."

Text © Ivan Ž. / Otto Kumm.

Photographer: Anton Wickl.
Date: 16 May 1943.
Location: Bileća, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: National Archives, 242-JRP-82-22-29.

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Operacija "Crno". Komandant SS-divizije "Princ Eugen", SS-grupenfirer Artur Fleps (desno), u razgovoru sa pomoćnikom načelnika štaba divizije (O1), SS-hauptšturmfirerom Egertom Nojmanom, za vreme čišćenja istočne Hercegovine od četničkih jedinica. Fotografiju je snimio SS-oberšturmfirer Anton Vikl, komandir ratno-dopisničkog voda divizije, drugog dana operacije (16. maja 1943. godine), pred Bilećom. Tog dana je komandant Jugoistoka Vrhovnoj komandi javio: "Četnici odstupaju pred SS-divizijom uz pomoć Italijana ka jugoistoku." (Iako je razoružavanje četnika planirano još od februara, italijanski komandanti su se i dalje protivili njegovom sprovođenju, smatrajući da bi time samo ojačali partizanske snage i pojačali već uveliko kritičnu situaciju na svojoj teritoriji.) Fleps je sa Italijanima posebno imao problema u Bileći; citat iz knjige "Napred, Princ Eugen!" Ota Kuma: "Dana 16. maja stigao je 2. puk preko Fatnice i Plane do grada Bileće. Italijanski komandant divizije pustio je generala Flepsa, koji je sledio za prethodnicom, da čeka 20 minuta na periferiji grada. Hauptšturmfirer Nojman, koji je sleteo rodom u Bileću na sastanak sa Italijanima, bio je prinuđen da uzleti. Italijani nisu želeli da dozvole prolaz kroz Bileću. General Fleps je zatražio jednu eskadrilu štuka, koja je potom kružila nad Bilećom, na periferiji grada raspoređena je oklopna četa divizije, ukazujući Italijanima na ozbiljnost situacije – kao poslednji ultimatum – i tek onda se nastupanje konačno moglo nastaviti."

Tekst © Ivan Ž. / Oto Kum.

Fotograf: Anton Vikl.
Datum: 16. maj 1943.
Mesto: Bileća, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: National Archives, 242-JRP-82-22-29.

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