31 March 2016

0150 | Photo | 118. Jäger-Division



Partisan attack on Mljet and Korčula. Captured members of the 750th Regiment, 118th Jäger Division, prepare to be transported from Vis to a POW camp on Biševo (on his right sleeve, the soldier in the foreground wears the insignia of Jäger units, three oak leaves). Also pictured (in the background) are a couple of guards, members of the XXVI Dalmatian Division.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: April 1944.
Location: Komiža (Vis), Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: Muzej istorije Jugoslavije / Znaci, 5322.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Partizanski napad na Mljet i Korčulu. Zarobljeni pripadnici 750. puka 118. lovačke divizije pripremaju se da budu transportovani sa Visa u zarobljenički logor na Biševu (vojnik u prvom planu na desnom rukavu nosi oznaku lovačkih jedinica, tri hrastova lista). Na slici se (u pozadini) vidi i nekoliko stražara, pripadnika XXVI dalmatinske divizije.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: april 1944.
Mesto: Komiža (Vis), Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: Muzej istorije Jugoslavije / Znaci, 5322.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

0149 | Photo | SS-Division "Reich" (mot.)



The commander of the SS Division "Reich", SS-Gruppenführer Paul Hausser (in overcoat), in conversation with one of his officers in Pančevo. (Hausser later commanded the II SS Armoured Corps, 7th Army and Army Group G. He was one of only four generals promoted to the highest rank in the SS, the rank of SS-Oberst-Gruppenführer. After the war, he became one of the most active defenders of the Waffen-SS and probably most contributed to the substantial historical rehabilitation of the organisation, which was declared criminal at Nuremberg. At the famous trial, in which he was called as a witness, Hausser denied a connection between the SS soldiers at the front and the concentration camp staff [although they were connected], and generally the crimes committed by members of the Waffen-SS – describing them as ordinary, honourable and disciplined soldiers; however, when the prosecution rhetorically asked whether the [infamous] "Prinz Eugen" Division was a unit of this organisation too – Hausser fell silent. He died of natural causes, aged 92.)

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: April 1941.
Location: Pančevo, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: Süddeutsche Zeitung Photo, 00014377 / Alamy, C45845.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Komandant SS-divizije "Rajh", SS-grupenfirer Paul Hauser (u mantilu), u razgovoru sa jednim od svojih oficira u Pančevu. (Hauser je kasnije komandovao II oklopnim SS-korpusom, 7. armijom i Vojnom grupom G. Bio je jedan od samo četvorice generala unapređenih u najviši čin u SS-u, čin SS-oberst-grupenfirera. Posle rata je postao jedan od najglasnijih branilaca SS-trupa i verovatno najviše doprineo popriličnoj istorijskoj rehabilitaciji ove organizacije, u Nirnbergu proglašene za zločinačku. Na ovom čuvenom suđenju, na koje je bio pozvan kao svedok, Hauser je poricao veze između SS-vojnika na frontu i osoblja koncentracionih logora [iako zapravo jesu bili povezani], i uopšte zločine počinjene od strane pripadnika SS-trupa – opisujući ih kao najobičnije, časne i disciplinovane vojnike; međutim, na retoričko pitanje tužilaštva da li je i [zloglasna] "Princ Eugen" divizija bila jedinica ove organizacije – Hauser je zaćutao. Umro je prirodnom smrću, u 92. godini života.)

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: april 1941.
Mesto: Pančevo, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: Süddeutsche Zeitung Photo, 00014377 / Alamy, C45845.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

28 March 2016

0148 | Photo | 1. Gebirgs-Division



Operation "Black". Members of one of the most brutal units of the German Army – the 1st Mountain Division, somewhere on Durmitor, with a group of Montenegrin civilians (probably a family). As can be seen, they used one of them (second person from the left) as an ammunition carrier (temporary use of adult male civilians for such purposes was common). It was usually written that the photograph shows civilians being taken to be shot, even though nothing in it leads to such a conclusion – and that the soldiers are members of the "Prinz Eugen" Division, although none of them is wearing an SS uniform. However, actual testimonies of crimes committed by the 1st Mountain Division (and by the opponent) during Operation "Black" do exist; one of them was left by Adrian Deuring from the 13th Company, 98th Regiment, in his diary (a quotation from the book "Bloodstained Edelweiss" by H. F. Meyer): "[21 May] The company shock troop found 17 dead soldiers, all naked. Captured and killed by the Partisans, and robbed to the skin. [13 June] Location unknown, all houses torched, anything that moved was killed, all cattle taken, Sergeant Major M[...] cold-bloodedly shot several wounded Partisans." (After the war, both the Germans and the Partisans claimed that they always treated prisoners according to the rules, while the opponent shot them on the spot.)

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: June 1943.
Location: unknown, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: Muzej istorije Jugoslavije / Znaci, 9034.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Operacija "Crno". Pripadnici jedne od najsurovijih jedinica nemačke vojske – 1. brdske divizije, negde na Durmitoru, sa grupom crnogorskih civila (verovatno porodicom). Kao što se vidi, jednog od njih (druga osoba sleva) iskoristili su kao nosača municije (privremeno korišćenje odraslih muških civila u slične svrhe bilo je uobičajeno). Za ovu fotografiju je uglavnom pisano da prikazuje odvođenje civila na streljanje, iako ništa na njoj ne upućuje na takav zaključak – a da su vojnici pripadnici "Princ Eugen" divizije, iako niko od njih ne nosi SS-uniformu. Međutim, postoje i prava svedočanstva o zločinima 1. brdske divizije (a i protivničkim) za vreme operacije "Crno"; jedno od njih je ostavio i Adrijan Dojring iz 13. čete 98. puka, u svom dnevniku (citat iz knjige "Krvavi runolist" H. F. Majera): "[21. maj] Udarna jedinica čete je pronašla 17 mrtvih vojnika, sve gole. Zarobljeni i pobijeni od strane partizana, i opljačkani do gole kože. [13. jun] Mesto nepoznato, sve kuće popaljene, sve što se kretalo je pobijeno, sva stoka odvedena, narednik-vodnik M[...] hladnokrvno je ubio više ranjenih partizana." (Posle rata su i Nemci i partizani tvrdili da su sa zarobljenicima uvek postupali po pravilima, dok ih je protivnik na licu mesta ubijao.)

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: jun 1943.
Mesto: nepoznato, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: Muzej istorije Jugoslavije / Znaci, 9034.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

25 March 2016

0147 | Bio | Artur Phleps



Artur Phleps, commander and founder of the SS Division "Prinz Eugen" and the V SS Mountain Corps. An extremely authoritative and charismatic person, a passionate strategist and logistician, strict but fair to his subordinates and ruthless to his enemies. He was loved by his soldiers, who called him fondly "Papa", and appreciated and respected by his superiors. Born in Transylvania, an ethnic German, officer of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Kingdom of Romania, and, finally, of the Third Reich. He enlisted in the Waffen-SS after the German invasion of the Soviet Union (at first under his mother's maiden name, Stolz), in the "Wiking" Division, where he first served as a staff officer and then as commander of the "Westland" Regiment. He came in Yugoslavia, whose terrain he knew well, half a year later and, in March 1942, founded an SS division from the Banat Germans, which would bear the name of "Prinz Eugen". Phleps led it through Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, through operations "White" and "Black" – until June 1943, when he was appointed commander of the newly-formed V SS Mountain Corps. He was also in charge of the formation of the Bosnian-Herzegovinian SS Division "Handschar", in March 1943, and of the Kosovo Albanian "Skanderbeg", in April 1944. In late August of the same year, after Romania switched sides and joined the Soviets, Phleps asked for a transfer to his homeland, to help the German refugees, and in September 1944 was appointed SS and Police Commander in Transylvania. But without troops at his disposal. The same month, accompanied only by his adjutant and driver, he entered a German village, unaware that the Soviet troops were already there; all three of them were captured, and shot the same day. Among the last lines in his diary, he confidently wrote: "Should I fall, I will be leaving an honest name to my people." But what Phleps and his soldiers really left behind were ruins and a sea of corpses of innocent, brutally murdered civilians – their former hosts. The enclosed photographs show him during the World Wars – as an Austro-Hungarian captain, and as an SS-Gruppenführer and commander of the "Prinz Eugen" Division (posing with the Iron Trefoil 1st Class, the highest military decoration of the NDH).

Text © Ivan Ž.

Name: Artur Martin Phleps.
Nationality: German.
Rank: SS-Obergruppenführer.
Date of birth: 29 November 1881.
Place of birth: Biertan, Austria-Hungary.
Date of death: 20 September 1944.
Place of death: near Arad, Romania.
Cause of death: shooting.
SS number: 401214.
Note: holder of the Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves; declared a war criminal by the Yugoslav State Commission and the United Nations Commission.

Photographer: a) unknown; b) unknown.
Date: a) 25 December 1915; b) March 1943.
Location: a) Villach, Austria-Hungary; b) unknown, Yugoslavia.

File source: a) Roland Kaltenegger, "Totenkopf & Edelweiß" (p. 96); b) Otto Kumm, "7. SS-Gebirgs-Division 'Prinz Eugen' im Bild" (p. 27).

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Artur Fleps, komandant i osnivač SS-divizije "Princ Eugen" i V brdskog SS-korpusa. Izuzetno autoritativna i harizmatična osoba, strastveni strateg i logističar, prema podređenima strog ali pravičan, a prema neprijateljima nemilosrdan. Njegovi vojnici su ga voleli i od milja zvali "tata", a nadređeni cenili i poštovali. Rodom iz Transilvanije, domaći Nemac, oficir Austrougarske monarhije, Kraljevine Rumunije i, na kraju, Trećeg Rajha. U SS-trupe je stupio po nemačkoj invaziji na Sovjetski Savez (u prvi mah pod majčinim devojačkim prezimenom, Štolc), u diviziju "Viking", u kojoj je prvobitno služio kao štabni oficir, a potom kao komandant puka "Vestland". U Jugoslaviju, čiji je teren dobro poznavao, dolazi pola godine kasnije i, u martu 1942. godine, osniva SS-diviziju od Nemaca iz Banata, koja će nositi ime "Princ Eugen". Fleps ju je vodio kroz Srbiju, Hrvatsku, Bosnu i Hercegovinu, Crnu Goru, kroz operacije "Belo" i "Crno" – sve do juna 1943, kada je postavljen za komandanta novoformiranog V brdskog SS-korpusa. Bio je zadužen i za formiranje bosansko-hercegovačke SS-divizije "Handžar", u martu 1943, i kosovsko-albanske "Skenderbeg", u aprilu 1944. Krajem avgusta iste godine, nakon što je Rumunija promenila stranu i pridružila se Sovjetima, Fleps traži prekomandu u svoju domovinu, da bi pomogao nemačkim izbeglicama, i u septembru 1944. postaje komandant SS-a i policije u Transilvaniji. Ali bez trupa na raspolaganju. Istog meseca, praćen samo ađutantom i šoferom, ulazi je u jedno nemačko selo, nesvestan da se u njemu već nalaze sovjetske trupe; sva trojica su zarobljeni, i istog dana streljani. Među poslednjim redovima u svom dnevniku samouvereno je zapisao: "Ako padnem, svom narodu ostavljam časno ime za sobom." Ali ono što su Fleps i njegovi vojnici zaista za sobom ostavili bila su zgarišta, i more leševa nevinih, mučki ubijenih civila – svojih bivših domaćina. Priložene fotografije ga prikazuju za vreme svetskih ratova – kao austrougarskog kapetana, i kao SS-grupenfirera i komandanta "Princ Eugen" divizije (dok pozira sa Gvozdenim trolistom I reda, najvišim vojnim odlikovanjem NDH).

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Ime i prezime: Artur Martin Fleps.
Narodnost: Nemac.
Čin: SS-obergrupenfirer.
Datum rođenja: 29. novembar 1881.
Mesto rođenja: Biertan, Austrougarska.
Datum smrti: 20. septembar 1944.
Mesto smrti: kod Arada, Rumunija.
Uzrok smrti: streljanje.
SS-broj: 401214.
Napomena: nosilac Viteškog krsta sa hrastovim lišćem; proglašen za ratnog zločinca od strane Državne komisije Jugoslavije i Komisije Ujedinjenih nacija.

Fotograf: a) nepoznat; b) nepoznat.
Datum: a) 25. decembar 1915; b) mart 1943.
Mesto: a) Filah, Austrougarska; b) nepoznato, Jugoslavija.

Izvor fajla: a) Roland Kaltenegger, "Totenkopf & Edelweiß" (str. 96); b) Otto Kumm, "7. SS-Gebirgs-Division 'Prinz Eugen' im Bild" (str. 27).

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

23 March 2016

0146 | Photo | SS-Freiwilligen-Division "Prinz Eugen"



Operation "Black". The commander of German Troops in Croatia, General Rudolf Lüters, inspects the honour guard of the III Battalion, 2nd Regiment, SS Division "Prinz Eugen", in Podgorica, before meeting with the Italian commander, Divisional General Ercole Roncaglia. He is accompanied by the division commander, SS-Gruppenführer Artur Phleps (on the far left), and the battalion commander, SS-Hauptsturmführer Otto Meckelburg (his battalion, together with an artillery battery, armoured company and an engineer and two anti-aircraft platoons, came to the city to help out the Italians, who suffered heavy losses from the Partisans). The photograph was taken at the corner of the Njegoš and Vučedol Street, in front of the Bank of Montenegro. This building, as well as almost entire Podgorica, would soon be destroyed, in numerous Allied bombings.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: Kollik.
Date: 22 May 1943.
Location: Podgorica, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: National Archives, 242-JRP-45-41-28.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Operacija "Crno". Komandant nemačkih trupa u Hrvatskoj, general Rudolf Liters, vrši smotru počasne čete III bataljona 2. puka SS-divizije "Princ Eugen" u Podgorici, pred susret sa italijanskim komandantom, divizijskim generalom Erkolom Ronkaljom. Prate ga komandant divizije, SS-grupenfirer Artur Fleps (sasvim levo), i komandant bataljona, SS-hauptšturmfirer Oto Mekelburg (njegov bataljon je, zajedno sa jednom artiljerijskom baterijom, oklopnom četom i jednim inžinjerijskim i dva protivavionska voda, u grad došao da bi priskočio u pomoć Italijanima, kojima su partizani nanosili teške gubitke). Fotografija je snimljena na uglu Njegoševe i Vučedolske ulice, ispred Crnogorske banke. Ova će zgrada – kao i skoro cela Podgorica – uskoro biti uništena, u mnogobrojnim savezničkim bombardovanjima.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: Kolik.
Datum: 22. maj 1943.
Mesto: Podgorica, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: National Archives, 242-JRP-45-41-28.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

21 March 2016

0145 | Music | Stukalied (Wir sind die schwarzen Husaren der Luft)




The Junkers Ju 87, better known as the Stuka (from "Sturzkampfflugzeug" – dive bomber), is one of the most recognisable aircrafts of World War II, the infamous symbol of the German Air Force and Blitzkrieg, and an excellent example of a pathological need for a total, both mental and physical destruction of the opponent, and complete domination. What makes the Stuka different from other weapons is a small – yet hellish addition, and its trademark: the frightening sirens, for psychological destruction of the enemy. Although it was intimidating enough by its appearance itself – the diving and attacking from close range, followed by the noise of the detonation, destruction and demolition – the Stuka was also equipped with two sirens that emitted a horrifying scream during the dive, and thus additionally sowed fear and panic among the enemy soldiers, as well as among thousands of innocent civilians: elderly, women and children. What is particularly interesting is that the sirens were given a biblical, Jewish name: "Trumpets of Jericho" – whose sound, according to tradition, collapsed the walls of Jericho, enabling the victory of the Jews; a highly unusual choice of name, with which the antisemitic Germany practically compared its campaign and weaponry with the ancient Jewish ones (the sirens were eventually withdrawn, after the enemy got used to them). The Stukas were also the forerunners of the German invasion of Yugoslavia, on 6 April 1941, when they, together with bombers He 111 and Do 17, dropped hundreds of tons of bombs on the capital, Belgrade, killing thousands of civilians. The "Song of the Stukas" is as cruel as the aircraft itself (see the lyrics), and it was originally written for the 1941 propaganda film "Stukas". The music was composed by one of the most famous film composers of the Third Reich, Herbert Windt (known especially for his music for the Leni Riefenstahl films: "Triumph of the Will", "Olympia" etc), and the lyrics were written by Geno Ohlischlaeger, film critic and songwriter. In the enclosed sound file, the song is performed by the II Band of the Infantry Regiment "Großdeutschland". The recording was made in Berlin, three months after the bombing of Belgrade.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Song title: Song of the Stukas (We Are the Black Hussars of the Sky).
Composer: Herbert Windt.
Lyricist: Geno Ohlischlaeger.
Date: 1941.
Lyrics: 1) A flock of black birds flies high above the land and sea, and wherever they appear, the enemy before them flees. They fall steeply from the sky, deep towards the ground. They sink their iron claws straight into the foe's heart. 2) When thousand lightnings are flashing, when danger threatens all around, they stick together like iron, comrades for life and death! When they spot the prey, it's doomed every time! Nothing can escape their eyes, of the Stukas, the eagles of steel! 3) They sow death and destruction hovers over the enemy land. Their traces are ruins and shards, and the flaming fire in the sky. Already in all countries, their name is passed from mouth to mouth. They strike and destroy factories, and send ships to the bottom. Refrain: We are the black hussars of the sky, the Stukas, the Stukas, the Stukas, always ready when action calls, the Stukas, the Stukas, the Stukas. We dive from the sky and strike. We do not fear hell and will not rest, till the enemy finally lies on the ground, till England, till England, till England is defeated, the Stukas, the Stukas, the Stukas!

Performer: II Band of the Infantry Regiment "Großdeutschland" led by Second Lieutenant Guido Grosch, with soldiers' chorus.
Date: 3 July 1941.
Location: Berlin, Germany.

File source: a) Michael L. Collection; b) Michael L. Collection.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Junkers Ju 87, poznatiji kao štuka (od "Sturzkampfflugzeug" – obrušavajući bombarder), jedan je od najprepoznatljivijih aviona II svetskog rata, zloglasni simbol nemačkog ratnog vazduhoplovstva i munjevitog rata, i jedan odličan primer patološke potrebe za totalnim, psihičkim i fizičkim razaranjem protivnika, i potpunom dominacijom. Ono po čemu se štuka izdvaja od ostalih oružja jeste jedan mali – ali pakleni dodatak, a njen zaštitni znak: zastrašujuće sirene, za psihološko uništavanje neprijatelja. Iako je sasvim dovoljno zastrašivala samom svojom pojavom – obrušavanjem i napadom iz neposredne blizine, praćenim bukom detonacija, razaranja i rušenja – na štuku su ugrađene i dve sirene koje su pri obrušavanju ispuštale stravičan urlik, čime je dodatno sejala strah i paniku među neprijateljskim vojnicima, kao i među hiljadama nedužnih civila: starcima, ženama i decom. Ono što je posebno zanimljivo je to da su sirene dobile biblijsko, jevrejsko ime: "jerihonske trube" – čiji je zvuk, po predanju, srušio zidine Jerihona, i omogućio pobedu Jevrejima; vrlo neobičan izbor imena, kojim je antisemitska Nemačka svoj pohod i oružje praktično uporedila sa drevnim jevrejskim (sirene su vremenom ukinute, nakon što se neprijatelj navikao na njih). Štuke su bile i predvodnice nemačke invazije na Jugoslaviju, 6. aprila 1941. godine, kada su, zajedno sa bombarderima He 111 i Do 17, izručile stotine tona bombi na glavni grad, Beograd, ubivši hiljade civila. "Pesma štuka" surova je kao i sam avion (vidi reči), a izvorno je napisana za propagandni film "Štuke" iz 1941. godine. Muziku je komponovao jedan od najpoznatijih filmskih kompozitora Trećeg Rajha, Herbert Wint (poznat posebno po muzici za filmove Leni Rifenštal: "Trijumf volje", "Olimpija" itd), a reči je napisao Geno Olišleger, filmski kritičar i tekstopisac. Na priloženom zvučnom zapisu, pesmu izvodi II orkestar Pešadijskog puka "Velika Nemačka". Snimak je napravljen u Berlinu, tri meseca posle bombardovanja Beograda.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Naziv pesme: Pesma štuka (Mi smo crni husari neba).
Kompozitor: Herbert Wint.
Tekstopisac: Geno Olišleger.
Datum: 1941.
Reči: 1) Mnoštvo crnih ptica visoko iznad kopna i mora leti, i gde god se pojave one, neprijatelj pred njima beži. Strmoglavljuju se sa neba prema zemlji duboko. Svoje gvozdene kandže zarivaju protivniku u srce pravo. 2) Kada hiljadu munja seva, kada svuda preti opasnost, gvozdeno čvrsto drže se oni, drugovi za život i smrt! Kada spaze plen, jao njemu svakoga puta! Ništa im promaći ne može, štukama, orlovima od čelika! 3) Oni seju smrt i nad neprijateljskom zemljom propast lebdi. Za njima ostaju ruševine i krhotine, a na nebu vatra plamti. U svim se već zemljama od usta do usta prenosi njihovo ime. Oni napadaju i uništavaju postrojenja, i na dno šalju brodove. Refren: Mi smo crni husari neba, štuke, štuke, štuke, uvek spremni kada zove nas borba, štuke, štuke, štuke. Obrušavamo se sa neba i napadamo. Pakla se ne bojimo i mirovati nećemo, sve dok neprijatelj konačno ne padne, dok Engleska, dok Engleska, dok Engleska pobeđena ne bude, štuke, štuke, štuke!

Izvođač: II orkestar Pešadijskog puka "Velika Nemačka" pod upravom potporučnika Gvida Groša, sa vojnim horom.
Datum: 3. jul 1941.
Mesto: Berlin, Nemačka.

Izvor fajla: a) Michael L. Collection; b) Michael L. Collection.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

18 March 2016

0144 | Photo | Schlachtgeschwader 151



Operation "Balkan Gorge". Stukas (Ju 87 D) of the 13th Squadron, 151st Ground Attack Wing, flying over the Montenegrin hills, in search of the Italian "Venezia" Division (which switched sides to the Partisans) and the units of the Partisan II Corps.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: Karnath.
Date: October 1943.
Location: unknown (Podgorica–Berane), Yugoslavia.
Original caption: "Stukas against gangs. Like a moonscape, the desolate and weathered high karst of Montenegrin uplands spreads beneath our pilots. This impenetrable labyrinth of gorges and abysses is an El Dorado for the Communist gangs housed in this stony wilderness. But the Stukas are rushing the insidious enemy out of their last hideouts, inflicting them heavy losses with constant attacks."

File source: Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-J16050.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Operacija "Balkanska klisura". Štuke (Ju 87 D) 13. eskadrile 151. jurišnog puka nadleću crnogorska brda, u potrazi za italijanskom divizijom "Venecija" (koja je prešla na stranu partizana) i jedinicama partizanskog II korpusa. 

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: Karnat.
Datum: oktobar 1943.
Mesto: nepoznato (Podgorica–Berane), Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: "Štuke protiv bandi. Poput lunarnog pejzaža prostire se pusti i trošni visoki krš crnogorskih brda pod našim pilotima. Ovaj neprobojni lavirint klisura i ponora pravi je eldorado za komunističke bande smeštene u ovoj kamenoj divljini. Ali štuke isteruju ovog podmuklog neprijatelja i iz njegovog poslednjeg skrovišta, nanoseći mu teške gubitke neprekidnim napadima."

Izvor fajla: Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-J16050.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

12 March 2016

0143 | Video | 13. SS-Freiwilligen b. h. Gebirgs-Division (Kroatien)



Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler visits a newly-formed volunteer division. A film report on the first visit of the Reichsführer-SS to the 13th SS Division in Neuhammer, released in the German Weekly Review No 692 (the text was spoken by Walter Tappe, who was replacing the ill Harry Giese). It was Himmler's custom to visit his newly-formed units, boost the morale of men with his presence as well as with words, and generally to maintain the spirit of unity within his organisation (SS). He visited the Bosnian-Herzegovinian division twice, both times during the training in Neuhammer, on 21 November 1943 and on 11–12 January 1944. Knowing whom he was dealing with, i.e. for tendencies of SS officers from Germany to have an attitude towards their comrades from other countries and nations, and even to harass them – Himmler (addressing the division's officers) noted: "There is to be no difference between a German from the Reich, a Bosnian, Croat, or a German from the south-east. We wear the same tunic, the same belt buckle, and the same national emblem. We have sworn the same oath to the same leader, and battle against the same enemy." He advised them to have patience with the Bosnians and said that he was convinced (and that history would prove him right) that only this division could restore order in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The report shows inspections of the 28th regiment, anti-tank battalion and artillery regiment – and the following (in)famous people: the division commander Karl-Gustav Sauberzweig (a war criminal, committed suicide after the war to escape trial), former commander of the SS Cavalry Division, Hermann Fegelein (a war criminal, executed at the end of the war as a deserter), SS surgeon and Himmler's personal physician, Dr Karl Gebhardt (a war criminal, executed after the war for cruel experiments on camp prisoners); also seen for a moment in the crowd is Egon Zill, commander of the II battalion, 28th regiment, and former commandant of the Natzweiler and Flossenbürg concentration camps (a war criminal, symbolically sentenced in Germany after the war to several years in prison; died later of natural causes). Heinrich Himmler, one of the greatest criminals in the history of mankind, saw the end of the war as everyone's enemy; Hitler declared him a traitor, and the Allies hunted him for his war crimes. He committed suicide, shortly after his capture.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Cameraman: unknown.
Date: 21 November 1943.
Location: Neuhammer am Queis, Germany.
Original text: "Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler visits a newly-formed volunteer division. Soldiers of this division are Muslims from Europe's south-east. They also receive the reliable basic training of the German armed forces. Artillerymen of the division at gun drills."

File source: Bundesarchiv, K 60373 / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2886.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Rajhsfirer SS-a Hajnrih Himler u poseti novoformiranoj dobrovoljačkoj diviziji. Filmska reportaža o prvoj poseti rajhsfirera SS-a 13. SS-diviziji u Nojhameru, objavljena u nemačkom nedeljnom pregledu br. 692 (tekst izgovara Valter Tape, koji je zamenjivao bolesnog Harija Gizea). Himler je imao običaj da obilazi svoje novoformirane jedinice, podiže moral ljudstvu i prisustvom i rečima, i uopšte da održava duh zajedništva unutar svoje organizacije (SS-a). Bosansko-hercegovačku diviziju je posetio dva puta, oba tokom obuke u Nojhameru, 21. novembra 1943. i 11–12. januara 1944. Znajući s kim ima posla, odnosno za težnje SS-oficira iz Nemačke da svoje drugove iz ostalih zemalja i naroda posmatraju sa visine, pa čak i maltretiraju – Himler je (obraćajući se oficirima divizije) napomenuo: "Ne sme se praviti razlika između Nemca iz Rajha, Bosanca, Hrvata, ili Nemca sa jugoistoka. Nosimo istu uniformu, istu kopču na kaišu, i isti nacionalni simbol. Položili smo istu zakletvu istom vođi, i borimo se protiv istog neprijatelja." Savetovao im je da imaju strpljenja sa Bosancima i izjavio da je ubeđen (i da će istorija pokazati da je bio u pravu) da jedino ova divizija može uspostaviti red u Bosni i Hercegovini. U reportaži je prikazana inspekcija 28. puka, protivtenkovskog diviziona i artiljerijskog puka – i sledeće (po zlu) poznate ličnosti: komandant divizije Karl-Gustav Zaubercvajg (ratni zločinac, posle rata izvršio samoubistvo da bi izbegao suđenje), bivši komandant Konjičke SS-divizije Herman Fegelajn (ratni zločinac, pogubljen pred kraj rata kao dezerter), SS-hirurg i Himlerov lični lekar, dr Karl Gebhart (ratni zločinac, posle rata pogubljen zbog surovih eksperimenata na logorašima); na trenutak se u gužvi vidi i Egon Cil, komandant II bataljona 28. puka, i bivši komandant koncentracionih logora Nacvajler i Flosenbirg (ratni zločinac, posle rata u Nemačkoj simbolično osuđen na nekoliko godina robije; umro kasnije prirodnom smrću). Hajnrih Himler, jedan od najvećih zločinaca u istoriji čovečanstva, kraj rata je dočekao kao neprijatelj svih; Hitler ga je proglasio za izdajnika, a Saveznici lovili zbog ratnih zločina. Izvršio je samoubistvo, ubrzo po zarobljavanju.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Snimatelj: nepoznat.
Datum: 21. novembar 1943.
Mesto: Nojhamer na Kvisi, Nemačka.
Originalni tekst: "Rajhsfirer SS-a Hajnrih Himler u poseti novoformiranoj dobrovoljačkoj diviziji. Vojnici ove divizije su muslimani sa jugoistoka Evrope. Oni takođe dobijaju pouzdanu osnovnu obuku nemačkih oružanih snaga. Artiljerci divizije vežbaju rukovanje topom."

Izvor fajla: Bundesarchiv, K 60373 / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2886.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

10 March 2016

0142 | Photo | SS-Fallschirmjäger-Bataillon 500



Operation "Knight's Move". Members of the 500th SS Parachute Battalion crawl beside the dead Partisans in a trench in Drvar. The photograph is a work of one of the best known German war photographers, Austrian Walter Henisch, famous for his unique and brutal shots from Russia and Yugoslavia. His works were also the theme of a two-month exhibition at the Vienna Museum, held in 2003 and 2004 under the title "Brutal Curiosity" and based on a conversation between the photographer and his son – in which, inter alia, he stated: "When I stand before a burning house and see people jumping out of the window – as a human – I feel terribly sorry. But – for me as a photographer – it presents a motif, and I, with a finger on the trigger, will stand, kneel or lie before it, and lurk. And my photographer brain will have nothing else in mind but the correct distance, accurate exposure time and the corresponding aperture." The brutal wartime photographs by Walter Henisch, who was presented in Vienna 60 years later as a cold-blooded, yet objective professional, used to be accompanied by sometimes even more brutal captions, filled with heavy (and by no means objective) political propaganda. This particular photo, which belongs to the series "The jump into the bandits' nest" (Tito's headquarters), was accompanied by the following text in the wartime press: "And so thousands and thousands of victims, in the Balkans alone, go to death for the goals of the communist-Jewish world plague." After the war, Henisch continued working as a photographer, in Vienna, but this time for the Socialist Party.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: Walter Henisch.
Date: May 1944.
Location: Drvar, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: "The jump into the bandits' nest. [...]"

File source: "Slovensko domobranstvo" 2 (p. 15).

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Operacija "Potez skakačem". Pripadnici 500. padobranskog SS-bataljona puze pored mrtvih partizana u jednom rovu u Drvaru. Fotografija je delo jednog od najpoznatijih nemačkih ratnih fotografa, Austrijanca Valtera Heniša, koji se proslavio svojim jedinstvenim i brutalnim snimcima iz Rusije i Jugoslavije. Njegovi radovi su bili i tema dvomesečne izložbe u bečkom gradskom muzeju, održane 2003. i 2004. godine pod nazivom "Brutalna radoznalost" a zasnovane na razgovoru fotografa sa svojim sinom – u kojem je, između ostalog, izjavio: "Kada stojim pred zapaljenom kućom i vidim ljude koji iskaču kroz prozor – kao čoveku – meni je strašno žao. Ali – za mene kao fotografa – to predstavlja motiv, i ja ću, sa prstom na okidaču, pred njim stajati, klečati ili ležati, i vrebati. I moj fotografski mozak neće imati na umu ništa osim tačne razdaljine, preciznog vremena ekspozicije i odgovarajuće blende." Brutalne ratne fotografije Valtera Heniša, koji je u Beču 60 godina kasnije predstavljen kao hladnokrvni, ali objektivni profesionalac, bile su praćene ponekad još brutalnijim natpisima, ispunjenim teškom (i nikako objektivnom) političkom propagandom. Ovu sliku konkretno, koja pripada serijalu "Skok u banditsko gnezdo" (Titov štab), u ratnoj štampi je pratio sledeći tekst: "I tako hiljade i hiljade žrtava, samo na Balkanu, odlaze u smrt za ciljeve komunističko-jevrejske svetske kuge." Posle rata, Heniš je nastavio da radi kao fotograf, u Beču, ali ovog puta za potrebe Socijalističke partije.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: Valter Heniš.
Datum: maj 1944.
Mesto: Drvar, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: "Skok u banditsko gnezdo. [...]"

Izvor fajla: "Slovensko domobranstvo" 2 (str. 15).

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

07 March 2016

0141 | Photo | 11. Panzer-Division



Operation 25. The beginning of attack of the 1st Armoured Group, the conqueror of Belgrade; direction: Caribrod–Niš–Belgrade. Weather: snow, rain and hail. The group was spearheaded by the "Ghost Division" (11th Armoured Division), whose vehicles are seen in the photograph; in the foreground is the unusual and rare four-wheeler/crawler, Saurer RK-7 (Sd.Kfz. 254) – the vehicle which, depending on the terrain, used either wheels or tracks (the wheels were lowered, or retracted, based on need). Only 128 of them had been produced, and they were mainly used as artillery observers. The one in the photo belongs to the 3rd Battery of the Artillery Regiment – and in the background can be also seen the so-called Small Armoured Command Vehicle [kleiner Panzerbefehlswagen], Sd.Kfz. 265.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: 8 April 1941.
Location: unknown, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: Ullstein Bild, 01106714 / Getty Images, 543886271.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Operacija 25. Početak napada 1. oklopne grupe, osvajača Beograda; pravac: Caribrod–Niš–Beograd. Vremenske prilike: sneg, kiša i grad. Na čelu grupe nalazila se "Sablasna divizija" (11. oklopna divizija), čija se vozila vide na fotografiji; u prvom planu je neobični i retki četvorotočkaš/guseničar, Zaurer RK-7 (Sd.Kfz. 254) – vozilo koje je, zavisno od terena, koristilo ili točkove ili gusenice (točkovi su spuštani, odnosno podizani, po potrebi). Proizvedeno ih je svega 128, i korišćeni su uglavnom kao artiljerijski osmatrači. Primerak na slici pripada 3. bateriji artiljerijskog puka – a u pozadini se vidi i tzv. malo oklopno komandno vozilo [kleiner Panzerbefehlswagen], Sd.Kfz. 265.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: 8. april 1941.
Mesto: nepoznato, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: Ullstein Bild, 01106714 / Getty Images, 543886271.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

03 March 2016

0140 | Photo | OT-Einsatzgruppe Südost



After a fierce, six-hour battle, on the night between 4 and 5 August 1942, Partisan units under the direct leadership of the Supreme Headquarters captured Livno. Also located in the city at the time was an office of the Berlin company Light Metals Trading (Hansa Leichtmetall), which, as part of the civil-military engineer Organisation Todt, had the task of finding new sources of metal and wood for the needs of the German war industry. Livno was defended by about 900 Home Guards and Ustashas – who were joined by employees of the German firm, the engineers and geologists, because they expected, in case of capture, to be shot (the Partisans were considered bandit gangs, which kill prisoners). Eight employees were captured, among whom there were director Anton Jorge and his wife (who, in a state of shock, bravely came first before the Partisans, singing loudly the German national anthem), and engineer Hans Ott (an extremely resourceful man, old officer, who also worked for the German intelligence service). Soon after the capture, Ott proposed a prisoner exchange – which was accepted by both Tito and the German Plenipotentiary General in the NDH, von Horstenau (they communicated via the temporary released Ott). Negotiations about the exchange list were conducted by Marijan Stilinović (from the Partisan side) and a group of German officers led by Colonel Walter Funk, in Zagreb, on 26 August 1942. The meeting, according to Stilinović's testimony, began "with Turkish coffee and rakia", "a talk about anything and everything" and "telling corny jokes", and the negotiations themselves were completed quickly and in a friendly atmosphere; the problem, in essence, were the Croatian authorities, who refused to hand over some of the wanted persons, claiming (falsely) that they were dead. Nevertheless, the exchange (although incomplete) had been agreed, and executed on a meadow in Studena Vrila (Posušje), on 5 September, also in a friendly atmosphere (as can be noticed by the smiling faces in the photo). Eight German employees, 12 Home Guard officers and 12 residents of Livno and Glamoč (alleged traitors) were exchanged for 49 members and sympathisers of the Partisan movement. The negotiations between the Partisans and the Germans were continued in November of the same year.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: 5 September 1942.
Location: Studena Vrila (Posušje), Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: Đurica Labović, Milan Basta, "Partizani za pregovaračkim stolom 1941–1945" (p. 112/113).

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Nakon žestokih, šestočasovnih borbi, u noći između 4. i 5. avgusta 1942. godine, partizanske jedinice pod neposrednim rukovodstvom Vrhovnog štaba zauzele su Livno. U gradu se u to vreme nalazila i kancelarija berlinskog preduzeća Trgovina lakim metalima (Hansa Leichtmetall), koje je, u sklopu vojno-civilne građevinske Organizacije Tot, za zadatak imalo pronalaženje novih izvora metala i drveta za potrebe nemačke vojne industrije. Livno je branilo oko 900 domobrana i ustaša – kojima su se pridružili i službenici nemačkog preduzeća, inženjeri i geolozi, jer su očekivali da će u slučaju zarobljavanja biti streljani (partizani su smatrani razbojničkim bandama, koje ubijaju zarobljenike). Zarobljeno je osam službenika, među kojima su bili i direktor Anton Jorge i njegova supruga (koja je, u stanju šoka, hrabro prva izаšla pred partizane, glasno pevajući nemačku himnu), i inženjer Hans Ot (jedan izuzetno snalažljiv čovek, stari oficir, koji je radio i za nemačku obaveštajnu službu). Ubrzo po zarobljavanju, Ot je predložio razmenu zarobljenika – što je prihvaćeno i od strane Tita i nemačkog opunomoćenog generala u NDH, fon Horstenaua (komunicirali su preko privremeno puštenog Ota). Pregovore oko spiska za razmenu vodili su Marijan Stilinović (sa partizanske strane) i grupa nemačkih oficira predvođena pukovnikom Valterom Funkom, u Zagrebu, 26. avgusta 1942. Sastanak je, prema Stilinovićevom svedočenju, otpočeo "uz tursku kavu i rakiju", "razgovorom o svemu i svačemu" i "pričanjem otrcanih viceva", a sami pregovori završeni su brzo, i u srdačnoj atmosferi; problem su, u suštini, bile hrvatske vlasti, koje su odbijale da izruče neka od traženih lica, tvrdeći (lažno) da su mrtva. Ipak, razmena (iako nepotpuna) je dogovorena, i izvršena na jednoj poljani u Studenim Vrilima (Posušje), 5. septembra, takođe u srdačnoj atmosferi (kao što se može primetiti po nasmejanim licima na slici). Razmenjeno je osam nemačkih službenika, 12 domobranskih oficira i 12 zarobljenih stanovnika Livna i Glamoča (navodnih izdajnika) za 49 pripadnika i simpatizera partizanskog pokreta. Pregovori između partizana i Nemaca su nastavljeni u novembru iste godine.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: 5. septembar 1942.
Mesto: Studena Vrila (Posušje), Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: Đurica Labović, Milan Basta, "Partizani za pregovaračkim stolom 1941–1945" (str. 112/113).

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

01 March 2016

0139 | Obituary | Ante Glavaš



An obituary for Ante Glavaš, a member of the SS Division "Prinz Eugen", killed at the beginning of the second phase of Operation "White", between Bosanski Petrovac and Drvar, on 26 February 1943. Also participating in these battles shoulder to shoulder with the "Prinz Eugen" Division was the German-Croatian "Devil's Division" (369th Infantry Division), in which a certain Ljubomir Glavaš served – whose son Branimir, half a century later, would become a well known politician and a general, and be convicted as a war criminal. Both Ante and Ljubomir were born in the village of Drinovci (the first one in 1907 and the other in 1921) and they were most likely blood-related as well. In the obituary, printed in the "Prinz Eugen" Printing House in Belgrade, there is the following inscription: "In memory of SS Private Ante Glavaš from Drinovci, who, on 26 February 1943, near Drvar, at the age of 36, for the Führer, nation and homeland, found a hero's death." On the back, as usual, there are a few morale-boosting words, some suitable poetry and a short prayer.

Text © Ivan Ž.

File source: eBay.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Osmrtnica za Antu Glavaša, pripadnika SS-divizije "Princ Eugen", poginulog na početku druge faze operacije "Belo", između Bosanskog Petrovca i Drvara, 26. februara 1943. godine. Rame uz rame sa "Princ Eugen" divizijom, u ovim borbama je učestvovala i nemačko-hrvatska "Vražja divizija" (369. pešadijska divizija), u kojoj je služio izvesni Ljubomir Glavaš – čiji će sin Branimir, pola veka kasnije, postati poznati političar i general, i biti osuđen kao ratni zločinac. I Ante i Ljubomir su rodom bili iz sela Drinovaca (prvi je rođen 1907. a drugi 1921. godine) i najverovatnije su bili i u krvnom srodstvu. Na osmrtnici, štampanoj u "Princ Eugen" štampariji u Beogradu, stoji sledeći natpis: "U spomen na SS-redova Antu Glavaša iz Drinovaca, koji je 26. februara 1943. kod Drvara u 36. godini života, za firera, narod i domovinu, našao junačku smrt." Na poleđini se, kao i obično, nalazi nekoliko reči za podizanje morala, malo prikladne poezije i kratka molitva.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Izvor fajla: eBay.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.