30 November 2018

0397 | Photo | Narodnooslobodilačka vojska Jugoslavije



A Yugoslav Partisan, with a US submachine gun (UD M42) around his neck and a Soviet cap on his head, posing in the vestibule of the House of the National Assembly in Belgrade in front of the statue of the Serbian emperor and lawmaker Dušan the Mighty, who points his sceptre at his famous code (a work by sculptor Dragutin Filipović from 1937; today, there is also a copy of the sculpture in front of the Palace of Justice).

Text: Ivan Ž.

Photographer: John Phillips.
Date: November 1944.
Location: Belgrade, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

Sources: Time-Life, 632198, via Google Arts & Culture; Chris Bishop (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II, Barnes & Noble Books, New York, 1998, p. 254; Vajarstvo, Narodna skupština Republike Srbije. File restoration: Ivan Ž.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files; using text without crediting the original author; using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Jugoslovenski partizan, sa američkim automatom (UD M42) o vratu i sovjetskom kapom na glavi, pozira u vestibilu Doma Narodne skupštine u Beogradu ispred statue srpskog cara i zakonodavca Dušana Silnog, koji žezlom upire u svoj čuveni zakonik (rad vajara Dragutina Filipovića iz 1937. godine; jedna kopija ove skulpture nalazi se danas ispred Palate pravde).

Tekst: Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: Džon Filips.
Datum: novembar 1944.
Mesto: Beograd, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvori: Time-Life, 632198, via Google Arts & Culture; Chris Bishop (ured.), The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II, Barnes & Noble Books, New York, 1998, str. 254; Vajarstvo, Narodna skupština Republike Srbije. Restauracija fajla: Ivan Ž.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova; korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora; korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

29 November 2018

0396 | Photo | 11. Panzer-Division



Having successfully completed its task, the "Ghost Division" (the conqueror of Belgrade) leaves Yugoslavia. A motorised column of the division (consisting of Victoria motorcycles and Ford trucks) on its way to Germany, near Beli Manastir (Hungarian-occupied territory).

Text: Ivan Ž.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: April 1941.
Location: Beli Manastir (district of Darda), Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

Sources: Fortepan, 71583; National Archives, RG 242, T-78, r. 334, 6291172; Velimir Terzić, Slom Kraljevine Jugoslavije 1941 – Uzroci i posledice poraza, Narodna knjiga, Beograd, 1982, bk 2, p. 599; For motorcycle experts, Axis History Forum, 11.08.2016, p. 2. File restoration: Ivan Ž.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files; using text without crediting the original author; using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Po uspešno obavljenom zadatku, "Sablasna divizija" (osvajač Beograda) napušta Jugoslaviju. Jedna motorizovana kolona divizije (sastavljena od viktorijinih motocikala i fordovih kamiona) na putu za Nemačku, u blizini Belog Manastira (teritorija pod mađarskom okupacijom).

Tekst: Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: april 1941.
Mesto: Beli Manastir (srez Darđanski), Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvori: Fortepan, 71583; National Archives, RG 242, T-78, r. 334, 6291172; Velimir Terzić, Slom Kraljevine Jugoslavije 1941 – Uzroci i posledice poraza, Narodna knjiga, Beograd, 1982, knj. 2, str. 599; For motorcycle experts, Axis History Forum, 11.08.2016, str. 2. Restauracija fajla: Ivan Ž.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova; korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora; korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

28 November 2018

0395 | Photo | Nacionalna služba rada za obnovu Srbije



Serbian workers – a shorts-wearing citizen and an always-clothed villager – pose for a German propaganda reporter at work, grinning as if working with a pneumatic drill was the most beautiful thing in the world. These boys enlisted in the National Labour Service for the Rebuilding of Serbia (Serbian equivalent of the Reich Labour Service), and got road construction jobs. The photo was part of a German report aimed at encouraging young Serbs to enlist in the (otherwise mandatory, but often evaded) labour service, presenting it as a voluntary, patriotic sport activity that brings bread and welfare. (The level of enthusiasm of the youth entering the National Service was also shown in a letter by student Božidar Petronijević, an orphan, sent to his brother Dragomir, a prisoner in Oflag VI C, on 19 August 1944: "Don't worry about me at all. As I already wrote, I passed all of the exams, finishing the seventh grade. It's a big question whether the new school year will begin. I've been enlisted in the National Service for ten days already and, as such, now I'm in the field in Kostolac. That's the way it had to be! In case the school begins, I'll be free again. It's for the best for now, I have a place to live, food and clothes, so I'm fully secured. But that's all just temporary; one never knows what might happen. The work isn't too hard." Indeed, one never knew what might happen; two months later, after the Partisans entered Belgrade, young Božidar was enlisted into the I Proletarian Brigade; two months later, he was lying dead on the Syrmian Front.)

Text: Ivan Ž.; Božidar Petronijević.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: 1943.
Location: unknown, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: "National rebuilding service in Serbia. With pneumatic drill, villagers and citizens fight together against the hard Serbian rock."

Sources: NIOD, via Beeldbank WO2, 45402; Cegesoma, 65414; ibid., 65423; Milan Borković, Kontrarevolucija u Srbiji – Kvislinška uprava 1941–1944, Sloboda, Beograd, 1979, bk 1, pp. 332–334; Petronijević Family Archive. File restoration: Ivan Ž.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files; using text without crediting the original author; using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Srpski radnici – jedan građanin u gaćama i uvek obučeni seljak – poziraju na poslu nemačkom propagandnom reporteru, cereći se kao da je rad bušilicom najlepša stvar na svetu. Ovi momci su se prijavili u Nacionalnu službu rada za obnovu Srbije (srpski ekvivalent Radnoj službi Rajha), i dobili posao na izgradnji puteva. Fotografija je deo nemačke reportaže čiji je cilj bio da podstakne srpsku omladinu na prijavljivanje u (inače obaveznu, ali često izbegavanu) službu rada, prikazujući je kao jednu dobrovoljnu, patriotsko-sportsku aktivnost koja donosi hleb i blagostanje. (Sa kakvim je entuzijazmom omladina stupala u Nacionalnu službu pokazuje i pismo đaka Božidara Petronijevića, siročeta, koje je 19. avgusta 1944. godine poslao svom bratu Dragomiru, zarobljeniku u Oflagu VI C: "Za mene se ništa uopšte ne brini. Kao što sam ti javio, sve sam ispite položio i tako sam i sedmi razred preturio preko glave. Nova školska godina stoji pod velikim pitanjem da li će početi. Ja se već deset dana nalazim kao obveznik u Nacionalnoj službi, i kao takav sada se nalazim na terenu u Kostolcu. Tako je moralo da bude! U slučaju da škola počne biću opet slobodan. Za sada je to najbolje, a imam stan, hranu i odelo, tako da sam potpuno obezbeđen. Ali to je sve momentalno; ne zna čovek šta se sve može doživeti. Rad nije mnogo težak." Zaista, ne zna čovek šta se sve može doživeti: dva meseca kasnije, po ulasku partizana u Beograd, mladi Božidar je prijavljen u I proletersku brigadu; dva meseca kasnije ležao je mrtav na Sremskom frontu.)

Tekst: Ivan Ž.; Božidar Petronijević.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: 1943.
Mesto: nepoznato, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: "Nacionalna služba za obnovu u Srbiji. Seljaci i građani zajedno se bušilicom bore protiv tvrdog srpskog kamena."

Izvori: NIOD, via Beeldbank WO2, 45402; Cegesoma, 65414; ibid., 65423; Milan Borković, Kontrarevolucija u Srbiji – Kvislinška uprava 1941–1944, Sloboda, Beograd, 1979, knj. 1, str. 332–334; Arhiva porodice Petronijević. Restauracija fajla: Ivan Ž.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova; korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora; korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

26 November 2018

0394 | Photo | Magyar Királyi Honvédség



Operation 25. Members of the Hungarian IV Corps in Sombor – allegedly during street fighting against the Serbs (it is, however, more probable that the dangerous situation was simply staged, for propaganda purposes). Thanks to the similar helmets and obscured (typically moustached) faces, the Hungarians resemble German soldiers so much in this picture that even the Germans confused them with their own troops; for example, in the German book "Our Fight in the Balkans" (1942), richly illustrated with press photos (with otherwise precise descriptions), the picture of Hungarian soldiers in the streets of Sombor was captioned: "German troops during street fighting against Serbian snipers."

Text: Ivan Ž.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: 12 April 1941.
Location: Sombor, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

Sources: Hadtörténeti Intézet és Múzeum, via Magyar Idők, 11.04.2016; NIOD, via Beeldbank WO2, 20706; Leo W. G. Niehorster, The Royal Hungarian Army 1920–1945 – Organization and History, 2010, p. 66; Franz Geisler et al., Unser Kampf auf dem Balkan, F. Bruckmann Verlag, München, 1942, p. 96/97.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files; using text without crediting the original author; using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Operacija 25. Pripadnici mađarskog IV korpusa u Somboru – navodno u uličnim borbama protiv Srba (verovatnije je, međutim, da je opasna situacija samo odglumljena, propagande radi). Zahvaljujući sličnim šlemovima i zaklonjenim (tipično brkatim) licima, Mađari na ovoj slici toliko liče na nemačke vojnike da su ih čak i Nemci bili pomešali sa sopstvenim trupama; na primer, u nemačkoj knjizi "Naša borba na Balkanu" (1942), bogato ilustrovanoj novinskim fotografijama (sa inače preciznim opisima), uz sliku mađarskih vojnika na ulicama Sombora stoji natpis: "Nemačke trupe u uličnim borbama protiv srpskih snajperista."

Tekst: Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: 12. april 1941.
Mesto: Sombor, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvori: Hadtörténeti Intézet és Múzeum, via Magyar Idők, 11.04.2016; NIOD, via Beeldbank WO2, 20706; Leo W. G. Niehorster, The Royal Hungarian Army 1920–1945 – Organization and History, 2010, str. 66; Franz Geisler et al., Unser Kampf auf dem Balkan, F. Bruckmann Verlag, München, 1942, str. 96/97.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova; korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora; korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

25 November 2018

0393 | Photo | SS-Freiwilligen-Gebirgs-Division "Prinz Eugen"



Like game hunters, the tireless Jäger of the "Prinz Eugen" Division continue pursuing the guerrillas in Herzegovina, after the completion of the big counter-guerrilla Operation "Black". An NCO and a machine gunner examine enemy tracks at the forest exit, while the rest of the group wait hidden between the trees.

Text: Ivan Ž.

Photographer: Hermann Heiß, SS War Correspondent Battalion.
Date: June 1943.
Location: unknown, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

Sources: National Archives, 242-JRP-30-5-18; Litzmannstädter Zeitung, 06.07.1943, p. 3. File restoration: Ivan Ž.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files; using text without crediting the original author; using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Poput lovaca na divljač, neumorni jegeri "Princ Eugen" divizije nastavljaju gonjenje ustanika u Hercegovini, po završetku velike protivustaničke operacije "Crno". Jedan podoficir i mitraljezac ispituju neprijateljske tragove na izlazu iz šume, dok ostatak grupe čeka skriven među drvećem.

Tekst: Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: Herman Hajs, Ratnodopisnički bataljon SS-a.
Datum: jun 1943.
Mesto: nepoznato, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvori: National Archives, 242-JRP-30-5-18; Litzmannstädter Zeitung, 06.07.1943, str. 3. Restauracija fajla: Ivan Ž.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova; korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora; korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

23 November 2018

0392 | Photo | 114. Jäger-Division



Having filled in a (Partisan-made) ditch on the road with rocks, members of the 114th Jäger Division continue their advance in Dalmatia. Advancing shoulder to shoulder with the German Jäger is a group of Italian tankmen, who chose to continue fighting on the Axis side after the capitulation of their country (partially seen on the left beside the road and in the background are their L3/35 tankettes and an L6/40 tank; the motorcycle seen in the foreground is a German, that is, an Austrian Puch 250 S4).

Text: Ivan Ž.

Photographer: Hans Wurm, 690th Propaganda Company.
Date: October 1943.
Location: unknown (district of Šibenik), Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

Sources: Narodowe Archiwum Cyfrowe, 2-524; Cegesoma, 64453; For motorcycle experts, Axis History Forum, 11.08.2016, p. 2. File restoration: Ivan Ž.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files; using text without crediting the original author; using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Zatrpavši kamenjem prokop na putu (koji su napravili partizani), pripadnici 114. lovačke divizije nastavljaju nastupanje u Dalmaciji. Rame uz rame sa nemačkim lovcima nastupa i grupa italijanskih tenkista, koji su nakon kapitulacije svoje zemlje odlučili da nastave borbu na strani Osovine (levo pored puta i u pozadini delimično se vide njihove tankete L3/35 i tenk L6/40; motocikl u prvom planu je nemački, odnosno austrijski Puh 250 S4).

Tekst: Ivan Ž. 

Fotograf: Hans Vurm, 690. propagandna četa.
Datum: oktobar 1943.
Mesto: nepoznato (srez Šibenički), Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvori: Narodowe Archiwum Cyfrowe, 2-524; Cegesoma, 64453; For motorcycle experts, Axis History Forum, 11.08.2016, str. 2. Restauracija fajla: Ivan Ž.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova; korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora; korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

22 November 2018

0391 | Press | Einsatzgruppe Jugoslawien



Found in a monastery in the rocks: The Serbian treasure. A photo report by war correspondents Otto and Grimm of the 691st Propaganda Company on the raid in the Ostrog Monastery carried out by Special Detachment Hintze (Gestapo), the arrest of Serbian Patriarch Dr Gavrilo Dožić and the finding (looting) of the state treasure, published in the "Berlin Illustrated Newspaper" on 15 May 1941. The Germans raided the famous Serbian monastery (then in the Italian-occupied territory) on the early morning of 25 April, searching for Patriarch Gavrilo – charged with stirring up the people and causing Yugoslavia enter the war against the Axis powers. They also found, in the monastery chambers, and seized the state treasure worth 375 million dinars, which the young King Peter left the monks for safekeeping when fleeing the country. Much to the delight of the Germans, among the seized goods, there was also the uniform of King Peter II, which was then used for propaganda purposes as a symbol of the Yugoslav defeat. The monastery itself was looted as well, while the monastery staff and church officials were harassed, beaten and humiliated. The patriarch was arrested and taken to trial in Belgrade, on the floor of the truck (forced to listen to the drunken Nazis' loud singing along the way). In the German report, however, the Gestapo men were presented as righteous heroes, the monastery staff as gourmands that had pork hanging off their ceilings, and the old patriarch as an English servant, a drunkard and a profligate, who, having wasted millions of state money on his friends, locked himself into a room, drank bottles of wine and fantasised about the Hawaiian islands while listening to records by black dancer Joséphine Baker (famous for her erotic performances). (Risto Grđić, then patriarchal finance director and an eyewitness, wrote the following in his memoir about the making of the German report: "At one point, we saw the Gestapo men taking the patriarch and archimandrite through all the monastery departments. They photographed them everywhere, even in the basement among the smoked ham and bacon. Later they published those pictures in some German magazines, attempting to present the monastery as a place of feasting and carousing. They also found a record player with recordings of the liturgy, and they presented them too as some kind of debauched performances.")

Text: Ivan Ž.

Photographer: Albert Otto (3), Arthur Grimm (1), 691st Propaganda Company.
Date: 25 April 1941.
Location: Ostrog (district of Danilovgrad), Yugoslavia.
Original text: "Found in a monastery in the rocks: The Serbian treasure. [Picture 1:] Like an eagle's nest on a mountainside of the Montenegrin mountains: the Ostrog Monastery. It was here that Gavrilo, the pro-British patriarch of Yugoslavia, nestled himself when German troops conquered the country. The young King Peter fled to him. He stayed there for one day only, then he had to move: the Germans had already captured Belgrade, Yugoslavia was facing capitulation! A few days later, new vehicles stopped before the monastery... [Picture 2:] Men of the Secret State Police made a surprise visit! In the monastery storeroom, where bacon, sausages and ham hang off the ceiling, they found sacks and chests that the young king had to leave behind during his flight. They contain parts of the Serbian state treasure, gold coins and paper money worth 375 million dinars! [Picture 3:] He brought the king and the people to ruin: Patriarch Gavrilo of Yugoslavia. He stood at the head of the conspiracy clique, which had long wanted to rush Yugoslavia into a war against Germany. After the king fled, he had state treasure hidden in rock cellars and caves, 15 million of which he distributed to good friends, and then locked himself in his secret chambers. One morning, men of the state police surprised him there. In his room, they found half-empty and empty wine bottles, and a gramophone with records by Negro dancer Joséphine Baker, whose Hawaii song he particularly liked... [Picture 4:] The king's uniform – without a king. It belonged to the 17-year-old King Peter II, who left his country, his army and his people in their hour of greatest need."

Sources: Albert Otto, Arthur Grimm, "Im Felsenkloster aufgespürt: Der Serbenschatz", Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung, 15.05.1941, p. 547; Risto Grđić, Uspomene, Glas Crkve, Valjevo, Sabornost, Beograd, 2002, p. 269; Nemačka obaveštajna služba, Uprava državne bezbednosti, Beograd, 1959, vol. IV, p. 405; Wilfred von Oven, Jürgen Hahn-Butry, Panzer am Balkan – Erlebnisbuch der Panzergruppe von Kleist, Wilhelm-Limpert-Verlag, Berlin, 1941, p. 219; Velibor V. Džomić (prir.), Mučeništvo srpskog patrijarha, Projekat Rastko. File restoration: Ivan Ž.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files; using text without crediting the original author; using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Pronađeno u manastiru u stenama: srpsko blago. Fotoreportaža ratnih dopisnika Ota i Grima iz 691. propagandne čete o upadu Specijalnog odreda Hince (Gestapo) u manastir Ostrog, hapšenju patrijarha srpskog dr Gavrila Dožića i pronalasku (pljačkanju) državnog blaga, objavljena u "Berlinskim ilustrovanim novinama" 15. maja 1941. godine. Nemci su u čuveni srpski manastir (tada na teritoriji pod italijanskom okupacijom) upali u rano jutro 25. aprila, u potrazi za patrijarhom Gavrilom – optuženim za huškanje naroda i ulazak Jugoslavije u rat protiv sila Osovine. Istom prilikom su u manastirskim odajama pronašli i zaplenili državno blago u vrednosti od 375 miliona dinara, koje je mladi kralj Petar pri bekstvu iz zemlje ostavio monasima na čuvanje. Na veliko oduševljenje Nemaca, među zaplenjenim stvarima obrela se i uniforma kralja Petra II, koja je potom korišćena u propagandne svrhe kao jedan od simbola jugoslovenskog poraza. Sam manastir je takođe opljačkan, a manastirsko osoblje i crkveni službenici su maltretirani, tučeni i ponižavani. Patrijarh je uhapšen i odvezen na suđenje u Beograd, na podu kamiona (prinuđen da usput sluša glasne pesme pijanih nacista). U nemačkoj reportaži su, međutim, gestapovci prikazani kao pravednici, manastirsko osoblje kao sladokusci kojima svinjetina visi sa plafona, a stari patrijarh kao engleski sluga, pijanac i raspusnik, koji se, spiskavši milione državnog novca na svoje prijatelje, zaključao u sobu, ispijao flaše vina i maštao o havajskim ostrvima slušajući ploče crnačke plesačice Žozefine Beker (čuvene po svojim erotskim nastupima). (Risto Grđić, ondašnji patrijaršijski šef finansija i očevidac, u svojim memoarima je o pravljenju nemačke reportaže napisao sledeće: "U neko doba spazismo kako gestapovci vode patrijarha i arhimandrita po svim manastirskim odeljenjima. Tom prilikom fotografisali su ih svugde, pa i u podrumu među pršutom i slaninom. Kasnije su te slike objavljivali u nekim nemačkim časopisima, s tendencijom da se prikaže kako se u manastiru samo jelo i bančilo. Našli su i gramofon sa pločama na kojima je snimljena liturgija, pa su i njih prikazali kao neke razvratne igre.")

Tekst: Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: Albert Oto (3), Artur Grim (1), 691. propagandna četa.
Datum: 25. april 1941.
Mesto: Ostrog (srez Danilovgradski), Jugoslavija.
Originalni tekst: "Pronađeno u manastiru u stenama: srpsko blago. [Slika 1:] Kao orlovsko gnezdo na padinama crnogorskih planina: manastir Ostrog. Tu se Gavrilo, proengleski patrijarh Jugoslavije, sakrio kada su nemačke trupe osvojile zemlju. Kod njega je pobegao i mladi kralj Petar. Zadržao se samo jedan dan, a onda je morao dalje: Nemci su već bili zauzeli Beograd, Jugoslavija se nalazila pred kapitulacijom! Nekoliko dana kasnije, nova vozila se zaustavljaju pred manastirom... [Slika 2:] Pripadnici tajne državne policije došli su u iznenadnu posetu! U ostavi manastira, sa čijeg plafona vise slanina, kobasice i šunka, pronašli su vreće i sanduke koje je mladi kralj tokom bekstva morao da ostavi za sobom. U njima se nalaze delovi srpskog državnog blaga, zlatnici i papirni novac u vrednosti od 375 miliona dinara! [Slika 3:] Odveo je kralja i narod u propast: patrijarh jugoslovenski Gavrilo. Stajao je na čelu zavereničke klike, koja je odavno želela da gurne Jugoslaviju u rat protiv Nemačke. Nakon kraljevog bekstva, ostalo mu je državno blago skriveno u kamenim podrumima i pećinama, od kojeg je 15 miliona podelio dobrim prijateljima, a potom se zaključao u svoje tajne odaje. Tu su ga jednog jutra iznenadili pripadnici državne policije. U njegovoj sobi su pronašli poluprazne i prazne vinske flaše, i gramofon sa pločama crnačke plesačice Žozefine Beker, čiju je havajsku pesmu posebno voleo... [Slika 4:] Kraljeva uniforma – bez kralja. Pripadala je sedamnaestogodišnjem kralju Petru II, koji je svoju zemlju, svoju vojsku i svoj narod u najtežem trenutku napustio."

Izvori: Albert Otto, Arthur Grimm, "Im Felsenkloster aufgespürt: Der Serbenschatz", Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung, 15.05.1941, str. 547; Risto Grđić, Uspomene, Glas Crkve, Valjevo, Sabornost, Beograd, 2002, str. 269; Nemačka obaveštajna služba, Uprava državne bezbednosti, Beograd, 1959, tom IV, str. 405; Wilfred von Oven, Jürgen Hahn-Butry, Panzer am Balkan – Erlebnisbuch der Panzergruppe von Kleist, Wilhelm-Limpert-Verlag, Berlin, 1941, str. 219; Velibor V. Džomić (prir.), Mučeništvo srpskog patrijarha, Projekat Rastko. Restauracija fajla: Ivan Ž.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova; korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora; korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

20 November 2018

0390 | Photo | Höherer SS- und Polizeiführer Serbien



Memorial service for the Bulgarian king in Belgrade. Wearing German and Bulgarian decorations, SS-Gruppenführer August Meyszner, SS and Police Commander in Serbia, greets the honour guard at the entrance to the Bulgarian legation building in Belgrade, where a memorial service for the deceased King Boris III would be conducted.

Text: Ivan Ž.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: 5 September 1943.
Location: Belgrade, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

Sources: Изгубената България, 4458; ibid., 4462.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files; using text without crediting the original author; using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Parastos bugarskom kralju u Beogradu. Okićen nemačkim i bugarskim odlikovanjima, SS-grupenfirer August Majsner, komandant SS-a i policije u Srbiji, pozdravlja počasnu stražu na ulazu u zgradu bugarskog poslanstva u Beogradu, gde će biti služen parastos preminulom kralju Borisu III.

Tekst: Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: 5. septembar 1943.
Mesto: Beograd, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvori: Изгубената България, 4458; ibid., 4462.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova; korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora; korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

17 November 2018

0389 | Photo | Narodnooslobodilačka vojska Jugoslavije



Operation "Snowstorm". Captured Partisan girls posing to an SS photographer near the village of Duboštica. The girls were captured by members of the 14th Regiment, SS Division "Prinz Eugen", and they were photographed shortly after the burial of three SS men, killed fighting the Partisans on (Catholic) Christmas. The same as their comrades captured on the same occasion (out of frame), the young Partisan girls wear a mixture of civilian and military clothing, without insignia (one has a scarf on her head, and the other some kind of cloth; it is possible that the Germans put the cloth on her head, to mock her, which would also explain her unusually angry facial expression; her companion, on the other hand, seems completely indifferent). The prisoners belonged either to the V Krajina or the XXVII Eastern Bosnian Division, and what did the SS men do with them – having buried their comrades for Christmas – is not known, but can be assumed.

Text: Ivan Ž.

Photographer: Hugo Kemps, SS Regiment "Kurt Eggers".
Date: December 1943.
Location: Duboštica (district of Visoko), Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

Sources: National Archives, 242-JRP-40-53-30; ibid., RG 242, T-313, r. 190, 7449911; Hans Hanel, Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e. V. File restoration: Ivan Ž.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files; using text without crediting the original author; using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Operacija "Mećava". Zarobljene partizanke poziraju esesovskom fotografu kod sela Duboštice. Devojke su zarobili pripadnici 14. puka SS-divizije "Princ Eugen", a uslikane su neposredno nakon sahrane trojice esesovaca, poginulih na (katolički) Božić u borbama protiv partizana. Kao i njihovi istom prilikom zarobljeni saborci (van kadra), mlade partizanke nose mešavinu civilne i vojne odeće, bez oznaka (jedna na glavi ima maramu, a druga nekakvu krpu; moguće je da su joj krpu na glavu stavili Nemci, podsmeha radi, što bi objasnilo i njen neuobičajeno ljutiti izraz lica; njena drugarica, s druge strane, deluje potpuno ravnodušno). Zarobljenice su pripadale ili V krajiškoj ili XXVII istočnobosanskoj diviziji, a kako su esesovci s njima postupili – sahranivši svoje drugove za Božić – nije poznato, ali se može naslutiti.

Tekst: Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: Hugo Kemps, SS-puk "Kurt Egers".
Datum: decembar 1943.
Mesto: Duboštica (srez Visočki), Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvori: National Archives, 242-JRP-40-53-30; ibid., RG 242, T-313, r. 190, 7449911; Hans Hanel, Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e. V. Restauracija fajla: Ivan Ž.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova; korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora; korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

16 November 2018

0388 | Obituary | 13. Waffen-Gebirgs-Division der SS "Handschar" (kroatische Nr. 1)



An obituary for Josef Schütz, a member of the SS Division "Handschar", killed fighting the Soviet-Partisan troops at Zmajevac, on 19 November 1944 (Batina Operation). He was born in Ruma, an ethnic German, and he lost his life 18 days before his 18th birthday. The obituary reads: "In memory of the fallen in the field of honour SS private in an infantry regiment Josef Schütz from Ruma, Croatia, who, on 19 November 1944, on the Southeastern Front, at the age of 18 and true to his oath, found a hero's death."

Text: Ivan Ž.

File source: eBay / kreuzschmerz.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Osmrtnica za Jozefa Šica, pripadnika SS-divizije "Handžar", poginulog u borbama protiv sovjetsko-partizanskih jedinica kod Zmajevca, 19. novembra 1944. godine (Batinska operacija). Bio je rodom iz Rume, folksdojčer, a život je izgubio 18 dana pred svoj 18. rođendan. Na osmrtnici piše: "U spomen na palog na polju časti SS-redova u jednom pešadijskom puku Jozefa Šica iz Rume, Hrvatska, koji je 19. novembra 1944. godine na Jugoistočnom frontu u 18. godini života, zakletvi veran, našao junačku smrt."

Tekst: Ivan Ž.

Izvor fajla: eBay / kreuzschmerz.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

0387 | Photo | SS-Freiwilligen-Division "Prinz Eugen"



The tallest soldier of the "Prinz Eugen" Division, Hans Schlechter of Petrovgrad, jokes with Croatian nuns at the expense of his tallness, that is, their shortness. The sisters, however, seem to prefer returning to their duties rather than joking with the jolly man from Banat.

Text: Ivan Ž.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: 1943.
Location: unknown, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: no caption.

File source: Schlechter Family Archive.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Najviši vojnik "Princ Eugen" divizije, Hans Šlehter iz Petrovgrada, zbija šale sa hrvatskim časnim sestrama na račun svog visokog, odnosno njihovog niskog rasta. Sestre, međutim, deluju kao da bi se radije vratile svojim poslušanjima nego se šalile sa veselim Banaćaninom.

Tekst: Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: 1943.
Mesto: nepoznato, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: bez natpisa.

Izvor fajla: Arhiva porodice Šlehter.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

15 November 2018

0386 | Photo | Zollgrenzschutz Serbien



Seemingly: German soldiers charging the "bandits" with their police dog. Actually: German customs guards pretending to be attacking the "bandits" with their police dog. Up on the hill, waiting for the Germans are just a handful of unarmed, ragged Roma, who would play the insurgents – who, as the press would later write, attack and pillage villages and villagers. (One of the pictures from this series was published, at the central spot, in the longest German report on the fighting against the Yugoslav resistance, entitled "The anti-bandit war in ex-Yugoslavia" and dedicated, above all, to the resistance leader Draža Mihailović.)

Text: Ivan Ž.

Photographer: Hans Wurm, 690th Propaganda Company.
Date: 1942/1943.
Location: unknown, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: Bundesarchiv / Yad Vashem, 7261/255.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Naizgled: nemački vojnici sa službenim psom jurišaju na "bandite". Zapravo: nemački carinici sa službenim psom glume napad na "bandite". Na uzvišici Nemce čeka samo nekolicina nenaoružanih, odrpanih Roma, koji će odglumiti ustanike – koji, kako će kasnije pisati u štampi, napadaju i pljačkaju sela i seljane. (Jedna od slika iz ove serije objavljena je, na centralnom mestu, u najdužoj nemačkoj reportaži o borbama protiv jugoslovenskih ustanika, nazvanoj "Rat protiv bandi u bivšoj Jugoslaviji" i posvećenoj, najvećim delom, ustaničkom vođi Draži Mihailoviću.)

Tekst: Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: Hans Vurm, 690. propagandna četa.
Datum: 1942/1943.
Mesto: nepoznato, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: Bundesarchiv / Yad Vashem, 7261/255.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

13 November 2018

0385 | Photo | 181. Infanterie-Division



Partisan attack on Ledenice. In field-gray greatcoats, covered with camouflage shelter-halves, the exhausted Germans, members of the 334th Regiment, 181st Infantry Division, surrender to the fighters of the Littoral Operational Group in Ledenice, 18 November 1944. It took 13 and a half days for the Partisans to conquer the strongest German stronghold in the Bay of Kotor. One of the most memorable descriptions of these extremely difficult battles was left by Vuko Radonjić, assistant political commissar of the III Company, III Battalion, I Boka Brigade (the attack on the Grkavac stronghold, a quote from the book "The First Boka NOU Brigade" by Dušan Živković): "In the period between 7 and 12 November, when the fortress fell, every day the III company launched an attack two to six times a day. Each time we attacked, we reached the fortress walls, but that was all we were able to do. We threw grenades into the fortress courtyard, but the Germans were not there. They were inside the fortress, shooting at us effectively through the loopholes. The fortress was sealed. The Germans had a good control over the entrance and we were left to fire at the fortress loopholes, causing almost no damage to the enemy. The loopholes were narrow and useful only to those using them on the inside. The fortress walls were extremely strong and resisted not only our light weapons but also the British artillery that fired directly into the fortress... From the way the German soldiers in the fortress acted, we concluded that they were using their ammunition very carefully. They did not fire at all if they were not sure that they would hit the target. Almost all of our comrades who died attacking the fortress were shot in the head from very close range." (The German 334th Fusilier Regiment was almost completely smashed during the fighting in the Risan–Ledenice sector; according to the regimental commander, the unit numbered only 400 men after the battle was over.)

Text: Ivan Ž. / Vuko Radonjić.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: 18 November 1944.
Location: Ledenice (district of Kotor), Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: Dušan Živković, "Prva bokeljska NOU brigada" (p. 150).

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Partizanski napad na Ledenice. U poljskosivim šinjelima, ogrnuti maskirnim šatorskim krilima, iscrpljeni Nemci, pripadnici 334. puka 181. pešadijske divizije, predaju se borcima Primorske operativne grupe u Ledenicama, 18. novembra 1944. godine. Trinaest i po dana bilo je potrebno partizanima da osvoje najjače nemačko uporište u Boki Kotorskoj. Jedan od najupečatljivijih opisa ovih izuzetno teških borbi ostavio je Vuko Radonjić, pomoćnik političkog komesara III čete III bataljona I bokeljske brigade (napad na uporište Grkavac, citat iz knjige "Prva bokeljska NOU brigada" Dušana Živkovića): "U vremenu od 7. do 12. novembra, kada je tvrđava pala, svaki dan je III četa napadala od dva do šest puta na dan. U svakom napadu dolazili smo do samih zidina tvrđave, ali to je bilo sve što smo mogli učiniti. Bacali smo bombe u dvorište tvrđave, ali tu nijesu bili Njemci. Oni su bili u tvrđavi i kroz puškarnice mogli efikasno da nas gađaju. Tvrđava je bila zatvorena. Ulaz su Njemci dobro kontrolisali i nama je preostajalo da gađamo puškarnice na tvrđavi, što neprijatelju nije zadavalo skoro nikakve gubitke. Puškarnice su napravljene koso i korisne su samo onome ko ih sa unutrašnje strane koristi. Zidovi tvrđave bili su strahovito čvrsti i odolijevali su ne samo našem lakom naoružanju nego i engleskoj artiljeriji, koja je tukla direktno u tvrđavu... Po dejstvu njemačkih vojnika iz tvrđave mogli smo zaključiti da strogo vode računa o utrošku municije. Nijesu uopšte pucali ako nijesu bili sigurni u pogodak. Skoro svi naši drugovi koji su poginuli na ovoj tvrđavi pogođeni su u glavu iz neposredne blizine." (Nemački 334. fizilirski puk skoro je potpuno razbijen u borbama na sektoru Risan–Ledenice; prema izjavi komandanta puka, po završetku borbi brojno stanje jedinice iznosilo je samo 400 ljudi.)

Tekst: Ivan Ž. / Vuko Radonjić.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: 18. novembar 1944.
Mesto: Ledenice (srez Kotorski), Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: Dušan Živković, "Prva bokeljska NOU brigada" (str. 150).

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

12 November 2018

0384 | Photo | Hrvatsko domobranstvo



A German NCO instructs a Croatian Home Guard how to operate a howitzer. Like other members of the Home Guard, the young trainee wears a Croatian copy of the old Austro-Hungarian cap on his head, and has a Yugoslav (originally French) helmet hanging off his belt, with a checkerboard painted on the side.

Text: Ivan Ž.

Photographer: Wehmeyer, 697th Propaganda Company.
Date: 1943.
Location: unknown, Germany.
Original caption: "Artillery trainees of Croatian units. On the defence front against Bolshevism, there is also Croatia. An experienced German instructor gives instructions to a Croatian artilleryman at the gun."

File source: Nationaal Archief, 29029 028.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Nemački podoficir obučava hrvatskog domobrana kako se rukuje haubicom. Kao i ostali pripadnici domobranstva, mladi polaznik na glavi nosi hrvatsku kopiju stare austrougarske kape, a o pojasu mu visi jugoslovenski (izvorno francuski) šlem, sa naslikanom šahovnicom sa strane.

Tekst: Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: Vemajer, 697. propagandna četa.
Datum: 1943.
Mesto: nepoznato, Nemačka.
Originalni natpis: "Artiljerijski polaznici iz hrvatskih jedinica. Na frontu odbrane protiv boljševizma nalazi se i Hrvatska. Jedan iskusni nemački instruktor daje uputstva hrvatskom artiljercu za topom."

Izvor fajla: Nationaal Archief, 29029 028.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

11 November 2018

0383 | Photo | 13. SS-Freiwilligen b. h. Gebirgs-Division (Kroatien)



Operation "Easter Egg". Radiomen of the Shqiptar Battalion (I Battalion, 28th Regiment), 13th SS Division, communicating with their HQ (a German NCO submits the report and receives further orders, while Shqiptar soldiers carry the radio set on their backs).

Text: Ivan Ž.

Photographer: Schattinger, SS Regiment "Kurt Eggers".
Date: April 1944.
Location: unknown, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: "Volunteers from Bosnia and Herzegovina in the fight for their homeland. The Bosnian-Herzegovinian SS Volunteer Mountain Division is equipped with good weapons and excellent devices. The latest radio devices provide connection with the command post."

File source: NIOD / Beeldbank WO2, 3622.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Operacija "Uskršnje jaje". Vezisti šiptarskog bataljona (I bataljona 28. puka) 13. SS-divizije u razgovoru sa svojim štabom (nemački podoficir podnosi izveštaj i prima dalja naređenja, dok šiptarski vojnici nose radio-stanicu na leđima).

Tekst: Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: Šatinger, SS-puk "Kurt Egers".
Datum: april 1944.
Mesto: nepoznato, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: "Dobrovoljci iz Bosne i Hercegovine u borbi za svoju domovinu. Bosansko-hercegovačka dobrovoljačka brdska SS-divizija opremljena je dobrim naoružanjem i odličnim uređajima. Najnoviji radio-uređaji pružaju vezu sa komandnim mestom."

Izvor fajla: NIOD / Beeldbank WO2, 3622.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

04 November 2018

0382 | Photo | V. SS-Freiwilligen-Gebirgskorps



A frowning soldier holding the grave marker of SS-Sturmscharführer Arthur Hasenpusch of the Veterinary Hospital, V SS Mountain Corps, at the Sarajevo cemetery (as can be partially seen, the soldier wears a cuff title of the "Prinz Eugen" Division). Hasenpusch was killed in Vogošća on 4 May 1944, probably in the explosion of two wagons with ammunition at the railway station (on the night between 4 and 5 May).

Text: Ivan Ž.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: May 1944.
Location: Sarajevo, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: Charles Trang, "Dictionnaire de la Waffen-SS" II (p. 69).

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Namrgođeni vojnik pridržava krstaču SS-šturmšarfirera Artura Hazenpuša iz veterinarske bolnice V brdskog SS-korpusa, na sarajevskom groblju (kao što se delimično vidi, vojnik na rukavu nosi traku s imenom "Princ Eugen" divizije). Hazenpuš je poginuo u Vogošći 4. maja 1944. godine, verovatno prilikom eksplozije dvaju vagona s municijom na železničkoj stanici (u noći između 4. i 5. maja).

Tekst: Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: maj 1944.
Mesto: Sarajevo, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: Charles Trang, "Dictionnaire de la Waffen-SS" II (str. 69).

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

03 November 2018

0381 | Photo | 13. SS-Freiwilligen b. h. Gebirgs-Division (Kroatien)



Reichsführer-SS visits the 13th SS Division. During the inspection of the anti-aircraft battalion, Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler (centre) makes sure that his Bosnian recruits have learned how to operate an "Acht-Acht" ("Eight-Eight", a German nickname for the 88 mm anti-aircraft gun; standing next to Himmler, wearing a mountain cap, is the division commander, SS-Brigadeführer Karl-Gustav Sauberzweig).

Text: Ivan Ž.

Photographer: Hermann Ege, SS Regiment "Kurt Eggers".
Date: 21 November 1943.
Location: Neuhammer am Queis (district of Sprottau), Germany.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: Narodowe Archiwum Cyfrowe, 2-13256.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Rajhsfirer SS-a u poseti 13. SS-diviziji. Prilikom inspekcije protivavionskog diviziona, rajhsfirer SS-a Hajnrih Himler (sredina) proverava da li su njegovi bosanski regruti savladali rukovanje "aht-ahtom" ("osam-osam", nemački nadimak za protivavionski top 88 mm; pored Himlera, sa brdskom kapom na glavi, stoji komandant divizije, SS-brigadefirer Karl-Gustav Zaubercvajg).

Tekst: Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: Herman Ege, SS-puk "Kurt Egers".
Datum: 21. novembar 1943.
Mesto: Nojhamer na Kvisi (okrug Šprotau), Nemačka.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: Narodowe Archiwum Cyfrowe, 2-13256.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

01 November 2018

0380 | Photo | Narodnooslobodilačka vojska Jugoslavije



Partisan attack on Poganek. Members of the XV Slovenian Division posing next to a wayside cross near the village of Mišji Dol, at dusk, at the start of their long march to Poganek (a railway bridge and a German stronghold near Litija; the journey lasted 12 hours, from dusk till dawn, and the attack was launched in the afternoon, at 16:30). The Partisans certainly did not stop by this Christian marker to pray before the battle, but to allow the accompanying Allied photographer to take an exotic picture (before going into action, instead of praying, the Slovenian Partisans sang their marching song, "Hey, Brigades").

Text: Ivan Ž.

Photographer: John Phillips.
Date: 19 September 1944.
Location: Mišji Dol (district of Litija), Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: John Phillips, "Yugoslav Story" (p. 90).

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Partizanski napad na Poganek. Pripadnici XV slovenačke divizije poziraju pored jednog krsta u blizini sela Mišji Dol, u sumrak, na početku dugog marša ka Poganeku (železničkom mostu i nemačkom uporištu pored Litije; put je trajao 12 sati, od sumraka do svitanja, a napad je izvršen popodne, u 16.30 časova). Partizani svakako nisu pored ovog hrišćanskog obeležja zastali da bi se pomolili pred borbu, već da bi omogućili savezničkom fotografu, koji ih je pratio, da napravi egzotičan snimak (umesto molitve, slovenački partizani su pred polazak u akciju otpevali svoju koračnicu, "Hej, brigade").

Tekst: Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: Džon Filips.
Datum: 19. septembar 1944.
Mesto: Mišji Dol (srez Litijski), Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: John Phillips, "Yugoslav Story" (str. 90).

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.