27 January 2016

0130 | Photo | 188. Gebirgs-Division



The commander of the 188th Mountain Division, Lieutenant General Hans von Hößlin (centre), with his officers in Istria. The division was transferred to Istria in February 1944 and it stayed there until the end of the war, fighting against units of the Partisan VII and IX Slovenian and XI Croatian Corps.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: 1944.
Location: unknown.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: Roland Kaltenegger, "Gebirgsjäger 1939–1945" (p. 239).

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Komandant 188. brdske divizije, general-lajtnant Hans fon Heslin (u sredini), sa svojim oficirima u Istri. Divizija je u Istru prebačena u februaru 1944. godine i tu je i ostala do kraja rata, vodeći borbe sa jedinicama partizanskog VII i IX slovenačkog i XI hrvatskog korpusa.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: 1944.
Mesto: nepoznato.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: Roland Kaltenegger, "Gebirgsjäger 1939–1945" (str. 239).

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

0129 | Photo | 1. Gebirgs-Division



Operation "Black". The commander of the 1st Mountain Division, Major General Walter Stettner, observes the operation from his command post, somewhere in Montenegro. His division is remembered for climbing the highest peak of Europe, Elbrus (Caucasus) – as well as for numerous war crimes, committed against the Albanians, Greeks, Yugoslavs and thousands of own former allies, the Italians. The general was killed near Belgrade, in October the following year.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: Zepke.
Date: June 1943.
Location: unknown, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: "In the mountains of Montenegro. The commander of a German mountain division observes from his command post the operations of his subordinate troops against the Bolshevik gangs in the mountains of Montenegro."

File source: Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-J14577.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Operacija "Crno". Komandant 1. brdske divizije, general-major Valter Štetner, prati operaciju sa svog komandnog mesta, negde u Crnoj Gori. Njegova divizija je ostala upamćena po osvajanju najvišeg vrha Evrope, Elbrusa (na Kavkazu) – kao i po mnogobrojnim ratnim zločinima, počinjenim nad Albancima, Grcima, Jugoslovenima i hiljadama svojih bivših saveznika, Italijana. General je poginuo kod Beograda, u oktobru naredne godine.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: Cepke.
Datum: jun 1943.
Mesto: nepoznato, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: "U planinama Crne Gore. Komandant jedne nemačke brdske divizije prati sa svog komandnog mesta operacije potčinjenih mu trupa protiv boljševičkih bandi u planinama Crne Gore."

Izvor fajla: Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-J14577.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

26 January 2016

0128 | Comparison | Then and now



Belgrade – then and now. This year, 2016, marks the 80th anniversary of the Belgrade Zoo, once one of the favourite places even of the Yugoslav royal family. The zoo advanced extremely well from the start, and it quadrupled its size in a very short period of time. Unfortunately, only five years after foundation, the progress was stopped by the German – and then put an end to by the Allied bombing. The zoo was halved in size (and to date remains the same), and most of the animals were killed. Among the few who survived the war, there were hippo Buca and alligator Muja. In the (old) photo, in the period between the two bombings, members of the German tropical and armoured troops play with Buca, back then the most popular animal of the zoo. Buca particularly liked his teeth to be scratched, and he opened his mouth on the command "Open your mouth, Buca!" After the war, he was rewarded with a girl, Julka, with whom he had his only offspring, Nidža. None of them is among the living any more; however, there is another Julka and another Nidža living in the Belgrade Zoo now, who recently had a baby too (just a few days before the second enclosed photograph was taken). Still living next to them is the old alligator Muja, officially the oldest alligator in the world. And the German soldiers are long gone from Belgrade – although some of their vehicles are still parked just a few hundred metres from the zoo, but this time as historical exhibits, and a reminder of a horrible time.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: a) unknown; b) Ivan Ž.
Date: a) 1942/1943; b) October 2015.
Location: a) Belgrade, Yugoslavia; b) Belgrade, Serbia.
Original caption: a) unknown; b) no caption.

File source: a) Muzej istorije Jugoslavije / Znaci, 7571; b) Ivan Ž.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Beograd – onda i sada. Ove, 2016. godine navršava se 80 godina od osnivanja Beogradskog zoološkog vrta, nekada jednog od omiljenih mesta čak i članova jugoslovenske kraljevske porodice. Vrt je od početka izuzetno dobro napredovao, i za vrlo kratko vreme je učetvorostručio svoju površinu. Nažalost, samo pet godina po osnivanju, napredak je zaustavljen nemačkim – a potom dokusuren savezničkim bombardovanjem. Površina vrta je prepolovljena (i do danas je ostala ista), a većina životinja je pobijena. Među retkima koji su preživeli rat bili su nilski konj Buca i aligator Muja. Na (staroj) slici, u periodu između dva bombardovanja, pripadnici nemačkih tropskih i oklopnih jedinica igraju se sa Bucom, tada najpopularnijom životinjom zoo vrta. Buca je posebno voleo da ga češkaju po zubima, i otvarao je usta na komandu "Zini, Buco!" Posle rata je nagrađen devojkom, Julkom, s kojom je dobio svog jedinog potomka, Nidžu. Danas više niko od njih nije među živima; međutim, u Beogradskom zoološkom vrtu sada žive jedna druga Julka i jedan drugi Nidža, koji su nedavno dobili i bebu (samo par dana pre nego što je napravljena ovde druga priložena fotografija). Pored njih i dalje živi stari aligator Muja, zvanično najstariji aligator na svetu. A nemačkih vojnika u Beogradu odavno nema – iako neka od njihovih vozila još uvek stoje parkirana samo par stotina metara od zoo vrta, ali ovog puta kao istorijski eksponati, i podsetnik na jedno strašno vreme.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: a) nepoznat; b) Ivan Ž.
Datum: a) 1942/1943; b) oktobar 2015.
Mesto: a) Beograd, Jugoslavija; b) Beograd, Srbija.
Originalni natpis: a) nepoznat; b) bez natpisa.

Izvor fajla: a) Muzej istorije Jugoslavije / Znaci, 7571; b) Ivan Ž.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

17 January 2016

0127 | Photo | Oflag XIII B



Oflag XIII B. Yugoslav officers' funeral. Among the deceased is Divisional General Dušan Trifunović – the former commander of the Yugoslav 7th Army, Minister of the Army and Navy, favourite of King Alexander I, adjutant to King Peter I, and one of the officers responsible for the Serbian victory in the Battle of Cer, 1914. The general was the 29th officer who died in this camp (in a period less than one year), and was buried with another three officers. In the photo, the camp commandant, Lieutenant Colonel von Imhof, salutes the Yugoslav officers; in the background is the German honorary platoon, which will escort the deceased with a three-volley salute. The speeches were held by two Yugoslav generals and the German commandant – who said the following (a quotation from the book "Between the Army and Politics" by M. Bjelajac and P. Trifunović): "It is my duty to depart from your deceased comrades on the behalf of the German armed forces. It is easy for me to understand your emotions when leaving a comrade far from the native soil. Your comrades who faced death won't rest here as enemies, because death equalises both sides. At their graves were laid wreaths with ribbons and signs of the swastika – the symbol of our sun and hope for a better future. I am confident that the time will come when the two of our nations will cooperate in peace, side by side. I wish for the dead an eternal glory and to rest in peace." Then he saluted the graves. After the war, General Trifunović was "honoured" by the new authorities in Yugoslavia with the status of war criminal (after an appeal by the family, the decision was eventually withdrawn – however, without a public announcement).

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: 7 March 1942.
Location: Nuremberg, Germany.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: Mile Bjelajac, Predrag Trifunović, "Između vojske i politike" (p. 270/271).

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Oflag XIII B. Sahrana jugoslovenskih oficira. Među preminulima je i divizijski general Dušan Trifunović – bivši komandant jugoslovenske 7. armije, ministar vojske i mornarice, miljenik Kralja Aleksandra I, ađutant Kralja Petra I, i jedan od oficira zaslužnih za srpsku pobedu u Cerskoj bici, 1914. General je bio 29. oficir koji je preminuo u ovom logoru (u periodu manjem od godinu dana), i sahranjen je sa još tri oficira. Na slici, komandant logora, potpukovnik fon Imhof, pozdravlja jugoslovenske oficire; u pozadini stoji nemački počasni vod, koji će ispratiti pokojnike počasnim plotunom. Govore su održala dva jugoslovenska generala i nemački komandant – koji je rekao sledeće (citat iz knjige "Između vojske i politike" M. Bjelajca i P. Trifunovića): "[Moja je dužnost] da se u ime nemačke oružane sile oprostim od vaših počivših drugova. Lako mi je razumeti [vaša osećanja] kada ostavljate svog druga daleko od rodne grude. Vaši drugovi koje je snašla smrt [ovde neće počivati] kao neprijatelji, jer smrt izjednačuje obe strane. Na njihove grobove položeni su venci sa trakama i znacima kukastog krsta – simbola našeg sunca i nade u bolju budućnost. Uveren sam da će [doći] vreme kada će naša dva naroda sarađivati u miru, jedan pored drugog. Želim mrtvima večan mir i pokoj." Potom je salutirao grobovima. Posle rata, generala Trifunovića je nova vlast u Jugoslaviji "počastvovala" statusom ratnog zločinca (nakon žalbe porodice, odluka je vremenom ipak ukinuta, ali bez javne objave).

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: 7. mart 1942.
Mesto: Nirnberg, Nemačka.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: Mile Bjelajac, Predrag Trifunović, "Između vojske i politike" (str. 270/271).

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

0126 | Photo | Kinderlager Eisenstein



Germanisation of Lower Styria. Slovenian children on "re-education" in the Eisenstein children's camp. The children were kidnapped in Celje and then taken to camps in which they were supposed to be turned into Germans. They lived in difficult conditions, with a hard work programme. The food and hygiene were quite poor, epidemics occured, and some of the children died too (after the war, fortunately, the majority did manage to return home after all). In the photo, the children begin their day in the camp – by saluting the flag of the Third Reich.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: autumn 1942.
Location: Markt Eisenstein, Germany.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: Muzej novejše zgodovine Celje, 745:CEL;FZ2-0000382.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Germanizacija Donje Štajerske. Slovenačka deca na "prevaspitavanju" u dečjem logoru Ajzenštajn. Deca su kidnapovana u Celju, odakle su odvođena u logore u kojima je od njih trebalo napraviti Nemce. Živela su u teškim uslovima, uz naporan radni program. Hrana i higijena su bile prilično loše, dolazilo je do epidemija, i neka od dece su i umrla (posle rata je, na sreću, većina ipak uspela da se vrati svojim domovima). Na slici, deca započinju svoj dan u logoru – pozdravljajući zastavu Trećeg Rajha.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: jesen 1942.
Mesto: Markt Ajzenštajn, Nemačka.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: Muzej novejše zgodovine Celje, 745:CEL;FZ2-0000382.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

14 January 2016

0125 | Photo | SS-Division "Reich" (mot.)



Execution of hostages in Pančevo. A curious SS man (far left) watches the hanging people at the old Orthodox cemetery; he is a member of the SS Division "Reich" – the unit which ten days earlier (formally) captured the capital of Yugoslavia, and whose judge sentenced these people to death. But it certainly isn't the soldier what stands out in this horrendous photograph; what is especially morbid here is the presence of a little boy – who was told to turn one of the corpses so that it faced the camera. In the photo, he still holds the hanged man by his sleeve, clearly in shock. Then the next body was also turned so that it faced the photographer, and the boy was placed to pose in front of them (his facial expression can hardly be described). Sadly, in war, rarely anything ends in a mere military victory or a quick liquidation of enemies. For some, usually perverse reason, there is a need to additionally humiliate, to gloat – and to toy with. And this, unfortunately, is not a characteristic of only one nation or an army, but something deep-rooted in human nature. Some individuals entertained themselves on this occasion too – especially the ethnic Germans (i.e. neighbours of the murdered), and played, for example: throwing a hat onto corpse's head. Families of the victims (small children included) were forced to attend the execution and to watch everything.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: 22 April 1941.
Location: Pančevo, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: Государственный архив Российской Федерации / Yad Vashem, 7904/236.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Pogubljenje talaca u Pančevu. Jedan radoznali esesovac (sasvim levo) posmatra obešene ljude na starom pravoslavnom groblju; on je pripadnik SS-divizije "Rajh", jedinice koja je deset dana ranije (formalno) zauzela glavni grad Jugoslavije, i čiji je sudija ove ljude osudio na smrt. No svakako nije vojnik ono što se izdvaja na ovoj jezivoj fotografiji; ono što je posebno morbidno ovde jeste prisustvo jednog malog dečaka – kome je rečeno da okrene jedan od leševa licem prema fotoaparatu. Na slici, on obešenog čoveka još uvek drži za rukav, vidno u šoku. Potom je i sledeće truplo okrenuto licem prema fotografu, a dečak je postavljen da pozira ispred njih (njegov izraz lica teško da se može opisati). Nažalost, u ratu se retko išta završi na pukoj vojničkoj pobedi ili brzoj likvidaciji neprijatelja. Iz nekog, najčešće perverznog razloga, postoji potreba za dodatnim ponižavanjem, likovanjem – i poigravanjem. I to, na nesreću, nije osobina samo jednog naroda ili vojske, nego nešto duboko ukorenjeno u ljudskoj prirodi. Pojedinci su se zabavljali i ovom prilikom – posebno domaći Nemci (tj. komšije ubijenih), i igrali se, na primer: nabacivanja šešira lešu na glavu. Porodice žrtava (uključujući i malu decu) bile su prinuđene da prisustvuju pogubljenju i da sve to posmatraju.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: 22. april 1941.
Mesto: Pančevo, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: Государственный архив Российской Федерации / Yad Vashem, 7904/236.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

10 January 2016

0124 | Photo | Infanterie-Regiment "Großdeutschland" (mot.)



Execution of hostages in Pančevo. Hanged people at the old Orthodox cemetery; a total of 36 citizens were executed, in retaliation for the death of nine ethnic Germans and the assault on two German soldiers. One group of hostages was hanged by the ethnic Germans, and the other was shot by members of the Infantry Regiment "Großdeutschland". In the photo, on the left can be seen some military musicians, who came to watch and take pictures of this horrible, yet for them obviously interesting happening. Who are they – and, first of all, what was the Infantry Regiment "Großdeutschland": it was the most elite unit of the German Army, the guard – which celebrated 20 years of existence that very year (and what a way to celebrate them). These are the soldiers whom the tourists from Yugoslavia too could have watched in Berlin during the ceremonial changing of the guard in the city centre, and whose postcards they could have taken home as a souvenir; the soldiers who, as a honour guard, regularly lined up before their President Hindenburg, Chancellor Hitler and various foreign officials. And these musicians belong to their band – the most famous German military band at that time, which also celebrated the 20th anniversary that year (a book was written about them and their principal conductor after the war, and several music CDs had been released as well; however, their presence at the Pančevo cemetery on 22 April 1941 remained unnoticed). The regiment spent a month in Serbia, and its members participated in the formation of Soldiers' Radio Belgrade, soon one of the most popular radio stations, which would launch the hit song "Lili Marleen". At the official opening of the radio, four days after this crime, members of the "Großdeutschland" Regiment sang too. Expressed in Caesar's style: I came, I shot, I sang.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: 22 April 1941.
Location: Pančevo, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: Yad Vashem, 8303/7.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Pogubljenje talaca u Pančevu. Obešeni ljudi na starom pravoslavnom groblju; pogubljeno je ukupno 36 građana, u cilju odmazde za smrt devetorice domaćih Nemaca i napad na dva nemačka vojnika. Jednu grupu talaca su obesili domaći Nemci, a drugu streljali pripadnici Pešadijskog puka "Velika Nemačka". Na slici, s leve se strane vidi nekoliko vojnih muzičara, koji su došli da posmatraju i fotografišu ovaj strašni, a za njih očigledno zanimljiv događaj. Ko su oni – i, pre svega, šta je bio Pešadijski puk "Velika Nemačka": u pitanju je najelitnija jedinica nemačke vojske, garda – koja je te iste godine slavila 20 godina postojanja (i na kakav način ih je proslavila). To su vojnici koje su i turisti iz Jugoslavije mogli posmatrati u Berlinu prilikom ceremonijalne smene straže u centru grada, i čije su razglednice mogli poneti kući kao suvenir; vojnici koji su kao počasna straža redovno postrojavani pred svojim predsednikom Hindenburgom, kancelarom Hitlerom i mnogim stranim zvaničnicima. A ovi muzičari pripadaju njihovom orkestru – najpoznatijem nemačkom vojnom orkestru tog vremena, koji je takođe iste godine proslavljao svoju dvadesetogodišnjicu (posle rata je o njima i njihovom glavnom dirigentu objavljena i knjiga, a izdato je i nekoliko muzičkih CD-ova; međutim, njihovo prisustvo na pančevačkom groblju 22. aprila 1941. ostalo je nezapaženo). Puk se u Srbiji zadržao mesec dana, a njegovi su pripadnici učestvovali i u formiranju Vojničkog radija Beograd, uskoro jedne od najslušanijih radio-stanica, koja će lansirati hit-pesmu "Lili Marlen". Na zvaničnom otvaranju radija, četiri dana nakon ovog zločina, pevali su i pripadnici puka "Velika Nemačka". U Cezarovom stilu rečeno: dođoh, streljah, otpevah.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: 22. april 1941.
Mesto: Pančevo, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: Yad Vashem, 8303/7.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

05 January 2016

0123 | Comparison | Then and now



Potsdam – then and now. In July 1943, a training course for imams (Muslim religious leaders) of the newly-formed Croatian SS Division (future "Handschar") was held in Potsdam. The course lasted three weeks and included lessons on the organisation of the Waffen-SS, the history of nationalism and the German language. The imams used their time for several excursions as well, one of which led to the summer palace of Frederick the Great, called "Sanssouci" [No Worries], in the park of the same name. In the (old) photograph, standing in the foreground are SS-Obersturmführer Heinrich Gaese (the tallest one, a German) and SS-Sturmbannführer Abdulah Muhasilović (with moustache), division imam (a year later, Muhasilović would incite a mutiny and desert with another 100 people and weapons; Heinrich Gaese, unlike Muhasilović, survived the war, and died in 1995). Also seen in the photo, in the background, is SS-Hauptsturmführer Husein Đozo (penultimate row, far right), imam of the division's 2nd regiment.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: a) unknown; b) Ivan Ž.
Date: a) July 1943; b) April 2011.
Location: a) Potsdam, Germany; b) Potsdam, Germany.
Original caption: a) unknown; b) no caption.

File source: a) George Lepre, "Himmler's Bosnian Division" (p. 73); b) Ivan Ž.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Potsdam – onda i sada. Jula 1943. godine, u Potsdamu je održan kurs obuke za imame (muslimanske verske vođe) novoformirane Hrvatske dobrovoljačke brdske SS-divizije (buduća "Handžar"). Kurs je trajao tri nedelje, a sadržao je lekcije iz organizacije SS-trupa, istorije nacionalizma i nemačkog jezika. Imami su dato vreme iskoristili i za nekoliko ekskurzija, od kojih je jedna vodila do letnje palate Fridriha Velikog, zvane "Sansusi" [Bez brige], u istoimenom parku. Na (staroj) fotografiji, u prvom planu stoje SS-oberšturmfirer Hajnrih Geze (najviši, Nemac) i SS-šturmbanfirer Abdulah Muhasilović (sa brčićima), imam divizije (godinu dana kasnije, Muhasilović će izazvati pobunu i dezertirati sa još 100 ljudi i naoružanjem; za razliku od Muhasilovića, Hajnrih Geze je rat preživeo, i umro 1995. godine). Na slici se u pozadini vidi i SS-hauptšturmfirer Husein Đozo (predzadnji red, sasvim desno), imam 2. puka divizije.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: a) nepoznat; b) Ivan Ž.
Datum: a) jul 1943; b) april 2011.
Mesto: a) Potsdam, Nemačka; b) Potsdam, Nemačka.
Originalni natpis: a) nepoznat; b) bez natpisa.

Izvor fajla: a) George Lepre, "Himmler's Bosnian Division" (str. 73); b) Ivan Ž.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

03 January 2016

0122 | Photo | SS-Freiwilligen-Division "Prinz Eugen"



Operation "Black". Members of the 2nd Regiment, SS Division "Prinz Eugen", with captured Herzegovinian Chetniks (members of the Trebinje Corps) in Stolac, at the very beginning of the operation; according to the original report from that day, the group was disarmed without greater resistance. The division's chronicler (and one of its four commanders), SS-Brigadeführer Otto Kumm, described the Chetniks in the following words (a quotation from his book "Forward, Prinz Eugen!"): "[They] wore the old uniform – and a new beard, because they had sworn not to shave until the occupiers were driven from the land. They were royalists and fought for their young King Peter II, but they withdrew to isolated villages and areas and only rarely confronted our units, unless they felt sufficiently strong. Their discipline and armament were relatively good; towards other Yugoslav ethnic and religious groups they were unpredictable, and they often assaulted Croatian villages or Muslim women. As their silent partners, they had the English – and their radio equipment. Sometimes they would move on oxcart or on horseback to a different area, mostly unscathed; we allowed them to pass because, in the long run, their victory would be ours too – being comrades in arms in the fight against communism. The situation was somewhat unclear, they weren't our friends, nor enemies; the situation changed from time to time."

Text © Ivan Ž. / Otto Kumm.

Photographer: Kollik.
Date: 15 May 1943.
Location: Stolac, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: National Archives, 242-JRP-89-1-28A.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Operacija "Crno". Pripadnici 2. puka SS-divizije "Princ Eugen" sa zarobljenim hercegovačkim četnicima (pripadnicima Trebinjskog korpusa) u Stocu, na samom početku operacije; prema originalnom izveštaju od tog dana, grupa je razoružana bez većeg otpora. Hroničar divizije (i jedan od njena četiri komandanta), SS-brigadefirer Oto Kum, četnike je opisao sledećim rečima (citat iz njegove knjige "Napred, Princ Eugen!"): "[Nosili su] staru uniformu – i novu bradu, jer su se zakleli da se neće brijati sve dok okupator ne bude oteran iz zemlje. Bili su monarhisti i borili se za svog mladog Kralja Petra II, ali su se povukli u izolovana sela i područja i samo retko se suprotstavljali našim jedinicama, osim kada su se osećali dovoljno snažni. Disciplina i naoružanje su im bili relativno dobri; prema ostalim jugoslovenskim etničkim i verskim grupama bili su nepredvidivi, i često su napadali hrvatska sela ili muslimanske žene. Kao pritajene saveznike imali su Engleze – i njihove radio-uređaje. Ponekad bi se na volovskim zapregama ili na konjima selili u drugo područje, uglavnom neometani; puštali smo ih da prođu jer bi, dugoročno gledano, njihova pobeda bila i naša – kao drugova po oružju u borbi protiv komunizma. Situacija je bila donekle nejasna, nisu bili naši prijatelji, ali ni neprijatelji; situacija se menjala s vremena na vreme."

Tekst © Ivan Ž. / Oto Kum.

Fotograf: Kolik.
Datum: 15. maj 1943.
Mesto: Stolac, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: National Archives, 242-JRP-89-1-28A.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

0121 | Photo | SS-Kavallerie-Division



A rare photograph of the Croatian Volksgruppenführer Branimir Altgayer (on the right) as a squadron commander in the SS Cavalry Division (later named "Florian Geyer") on the Eastern Front. The reason for sending this high official (who was also a state secretary) to the front is unknown; it is possible that it was disciplinary (since Altgayer was often disobedient, and was considered a weak leader), or for propaganda purposes, so that he would affect and increase the otherwise poor ethnic German response to recruitment, with a personal example (upon his return from the front, he did indeed declare the full mobilisation of Croatian Germans). In any case, this part of his career is being ignored in his biographies, for reasons unknown. The SS Cavalry Division participated in many actions against the Soviet partisans in the period in which Altgayer served in it (May–August 1943) – as did he himself, for which he was awarded too (in July), with the Iron Cross 2nd Class. In the photo, Altgayer is being addressed (not in a soft tone obviously) by the head of the Central Office for Ethnic Germans, SS-Obergruppenführer Werner Lorenz (on the left); far in the background (in a light tunic), partially visible, is the division commander, SS-Brigadeführer Hermann Fegelein. This division largely consisted of ethnic Germans, and it spent a brief time in Yugoslavia as well, near Osijek, during winter 1943/44.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: summer 1943.
Location: unknown, Soviet Union.
Original caption: "SS-Obergruppenführer and General of the Police Lorenz in conversation with the Croatian Volksgruppenführer Altgayer, who serves as a squadron commander in an SS cavalry division."

File source: NIOD / Beeldbank WO2, 32222.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Retka fotografija hrvatskog folksgrupenfirera Branimira Altgajera (desno) kao komandira jednog eskadrona Konjičke SS-divizije (kasnije nazvane "Florijan Gajer") na Istočnom frontu. Razlog slanja ovog visokog funkcionera (koji je bio i državni sekretar) na front nije poznat; moguće je da je bio disciplinski (jer je Altgajer često bio neposlušan, i smatran mlakim vođom), ili propagande radi, ne bi li ličnim primerom uticao i povisio inače slab odziv folksdojčera na regrutaciju (po povratku sa fronta, on i jeste proglasio opštu mobilizaciju hrvatskih Nemaca). U svakom slučaju, ovaj deo njegove karijere se iz nepoznatih razloga zaobilazi u njegovim biografijama. Konjička SS-divizija je u periodu u kojem je Altgajer služio u njoj (maj–avgust 1943) učestvovala u mnogobrojnim akcijama protiv sovjetskih partizana – kao i on lično, za šta je i odlikovan (u julu), Gvozdenim krstom II reda. Na slici, Altgajeru se obraća (očigledno ne blagim tonom) šef Centralne ustanove za folksdojčere, SS-obergrupenfirer Verner Lorenc (levo); sasvim nazad (u svetloj bluzi) delimično se vidi i komandant divizije, SS-brigadefirer Herman Fegelajn. Ova divizija je dobrim delom bila sastavljena od folksdojčera, a provela je jedno kraće vreme i u Jugoslaviji, kod Osijeka, zime 1943/44.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: leto 1943.
Mesto: nepoznato, Sovjetski Savez.
Originalni natpis: "SS-obergrupenfirer i general policije Lorenc u razgovoru sa hrvatskim folksgrupenfirerom Altgajerom, koji služi u jednoj konjičkoj SS-diviziji kao komandir eskadrona."

Izvor fajla: NIOD / Beeldbank WO2, 32222.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.