29 February 2016

0138 | Photo | 114. Jäger-Division



The commander of the 114th Jäger Division, Lieutenant General Karl Eglseer (third from the left), and the bishop of Šibenik, Dr Jeronim Mileta (third from the right), walking around the famous Cathedral of St. Jakob (from XV century) in Šibenik. The photograph was published in the German wartime magazine "Signal", in a propaganda report about the meeting of the two leaders (military and religious) and the fight against communism; the original text reads: "Bishop's gratitude. A Croatian church dignitary realises the danger of Bolshevism. Monsignor Jeronim Mileta is a Catholic bishop of the former Dalmatian naval port of Šibenik, a city which also has an industrial significance, and which, after Split, is the most important trading place in central Dalmatia. During the meeting with the commander of a Jäger division, a Knight's Cross holder, Lieutenant General Eglseer, the bishop, who had been the supreme spiritual leader of his district for nearly three decades, emphasised that he, as a Catholic priest and a good Croat, welcomes the struggle led by the German army against the global threat of Bolshevism. The bishop thanked the German general for the exceptional aid that the army provides to the Church by liberating the areas infected with the gangs." A year and a half later, in his speech on the occasion of the formation of the People's Government of Croatia, the bishop also thanked the (quote) "brave fighters of the People's Liberation Army with their glorious leader, People's Hero, Marshal Josip Broz Tito", and blessed the new, communist state.

Text © Ivan Ž. / Signal.

Photographer: Gruber.
Date: autumn 1943.
Location: Šibenik, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: Narodowe Archiwum Cyfrowe, 2-16159.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Komandant 114. lovačke divizije, general-lajtnant Karl Eglzer (treći sleva), i biskup šibenski, dr Jeronim Mileta (treći zdesna), u šetnji oko čuvene katedrale Sv. Jakova (iz XV veka) u Šibeniku. Fotografija je objavljena u nemačkom ratnom časopisu "Signal", u propagandnoj reportaži o sastanku dvojice vođa (vojnog i verskog) i borbi protiv komunizma; originalni tekst: "Zahvalnost biskupa. Jedan hrvatski crkveni velikodostojnik shvata opasnost boljševizma. Monsinjor Jeronim Mileta je katolički biskup bivše dalmatinske ratne luke Šibenik, grada koji ima takođe i industrijski značaj, i koji je pored Splita najvažnije trgovačko mesto srednje Dalmacije. Prilikom sastanka sa komandantom jedne lovačke divizije, nosiocem Viteškog krsta, general-lajtnantom Eglzerom, naglasio je biskup, koji je skoro tri decenije vrhovni duhovni vođa svoga kotara, kako on kao katolički sveštenik i dobar Hrvat pozdravlja borbu koju vodi nemačka vojska protiv svetske opasnosti boljševizma. Biskup je zahvalio nemačkom generalu za posebnu pomoć koju pruža vojska Crkvi oslobađanjem područja zaraženih bandama." Godinu i po dana kasnije, u govoru povodom formiranja Narodne vlade Hrvatske, biskup je zahvalio i (citat) "hrabrim borcima Narodnooslobodilačke vojske sa svojim proslavljenim vođom, narodnim herojem, maršalom Josipom Brozom Titom", i blagoslovio novu, komunističku državu.

Tekst © Ivan Ž. / Signal.

Fotograf: Gruber.
Datum: jesen 1943.
Mesto: Šibenik, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: Narodowe Archiwum Cyfrowe, 2-16159.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

18 February 2016

0137 | Video | SS-Freiwilligen-Division "Prinz Eugen"



In Montenegro. A film report on the SS Division "Prinz Eugen" and Operation "Black"; officially, it was filmed in Montenegro, in May 1943 (but some of the last year's footage from Serbia was used as well), and it was released at the end of the following month, in the German Weekly Review No 669. The cameraman was Josef Schifko (a German from Maribor), member of the division's War Correspondent Platoon, and the text was spoken, as usual, by the Berlin narrator and actor Harry Giese (born in Magdeburg). Used as the soundtrack was the theme from the movie "Tanks Attack!", at the beginning (because of its dramatic melody, but it was not related to the division itself), and a currently unidentified march, at the end. The report ends with footage of captured Partisans, which were described as bandits that "terrorised the population for months", and then were shown the civilians, presenting an SS man with eggs (affectedly waving the little flags supplied by the Germans), with narrator's comment: "The population thanks their liberators!" The last scenes show the farmers, with the comment: "The farmer can work his land in peace again!" In reality, the division was known for atrocities against civilians since its first action, about which even the cameraman of this very reportage had testified (in writing). During Operation "Black", in Montenegro, in Nikšić and Šavnik districts alone, 17 villages were burnt down and a number of civilians were killed, including the elderly, women and children.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Cameraman: Josef Schifko.
Date: November 1942 – May 1943.
Location: unknown, Yugoslavia.
Original text: "In Montenegro. As the Armed Forces Report announced, German and allied troops destroyed heavily armed gangs here, after weekslong difficult fighting. A scout sends a message. There lies the hideout of the bandits. The attack order is passed on. Trucks bring units of the Waffen-SS to the starting positions for the ordered cleansing operation. Mortars and artillery smash the pockets of resistance of the bandits. Under fire, shock troops advance over the rugged mountains, overcoming difficult climbs. Machine guns scatter the terrain. A cavalry detachment hits the foe in the flank. The combined fire of our heavy weapons destroys the last firm strongholds of the bandits. Light signals announce the end of fighting. These are the ringleaders of the gang. They terrorised the population for months and jeopardised the supplying of our troops. Now they will be brought to justice. The population thanks their liberators. The farmer can work his land in peace again."

File source: Bundesarchiv, K 20349 / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2563.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



U Crnoj Gori. Filmska reportaža o SS-diviziji "Princ Eugen" i operaciji "Crno"; zvanično, snimana je u Crnoj Gori, u maju 1943. godine (ali je upotrebljeno i nekoliko prošlogodišnjih kadrova iz Srbije), a objavljena je krajem narednog meseca, u Nemačkom nedeljnom pregledu br. 669. Snimatelj je bio Jozef Šifko (Nemac iz Maribora), pripadnik ratno-dopisničkog voda divizije, a tekst izgovara, kao i inače, berlinski narator i glumac Hari Gize (rodom iz Magdeburga). Za muzičku podlogu upotrebljena je tema iz filma "Tenkovi napadaju!", na početku (zbog svoje dramatične melodije, ali povezanosti sa samom divizijom nema), i jedan trenutno neidentifikovani marš, na kraju. Prilog se završava snimcima zarobljenih partizana, koji su opisani kao banditi koji su "mesecima terorisali stanovništvo", a potom su prikazani civili koji esesovcu poklanjaju jaja (izveštačeno mašući zastavicama dobijenim od Nemaca), uz komentar naratora: "Stanovništvo zahvaljuje svojim oslobodiocima!" Poslednji kadrovi prikazuju zemljoradnike, uz komentar: "Seljak ponovo može na miru da obrađuje svoju njivu!" U stvarnosti, divizija je još od prve akcije bila poznata po zločinima nad civilima, o čemu je (pismeno) svedočanstvo ostavio čak i snimatelj ove reportaže. Za vreme operacije "Crno", u Crnoj Gori je samo u nikšićkom i šavničkom srezu spaljeno 17 sela i ubijen veći broj civila, uključujući starce, žene i decu.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Snimatelj: Jozef Šifko.
Datum: novembar 1942 – maj 1943.
Mesto: nepoznato, Jugoslavija.
Originalni tekst: "U Crnoj Gori. Kao što je objavljeno u Izveštaju oružanih snaga, ovde su nakon višenedeljnih teških borbi nemačke i savezničke trupe uništile dobro naoružane bande. Izviđač šalje poruku. Tamo se nalazi skrovište bandita. Prosleđuje se naređenje za napad. Kamioni dovoze jedinice SS-trupa na polazne položaje za zapoveđenu akciju čišćenja. Minobacači i artiljerija razbijaju džepove otpora bandita. Pod vatrom, udarne jedinice napreduju preko trošnih planina, savlađujući teške uspone. Mitraljezi zasipaju teren. Jedan konjički odred udara protivnika u bok. Kombinovana vatra našeg teškog naoružanja uništava poslednja čvrsta uporišta bandita. Svetlosni signali označavaju kraj borbe. Ovo su kolovođe bande. Oni su mesecima terorisali stanovništvo i ugrožavali snabdevanje naših trupa. Sada će biti izvedeni pred lice pravde. Stanovništvo zahvaljuje svojim oslobodiocima. Seljak ponovo može na miru da obrađuje svoju njivu."

Izvor fajla: Bundesarchiv, K 20349 / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2563.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

15 February 2016

0136 | Photo | SS-Kriegsberichter-Abteilung



Josef Schifko, a German from Lower Styria (from Maribor), during the filming of a report on the "Prinz Eugen" Division (which would be published in the German Weekly Review No 669, at the end of June 1943). He was also one of the war correspondents who witnessed the first action of this unit – and the horrific massacre of civilians in the village of Kriva Reka (which they reported to their superiors afterwards). In his report on that action, Schifko wrote the following: "I had refrained from further filming here, where members of the SS Volunteer Division "Prinz Eugen" (exclusively Germans from Banat) killed on their way everything that moved. Women and children, even infants were beaten to death with rifle butts, or shot. All men shot. In Kriva Reka, all of the straw, hay and barley stocks were burnt. Likewise, all the houses with complete stocks (wool, fruit, cheese, cereal, etc!!). I had also refrained from filming isolated women who were shot with machine guns from a distance of a few hundred metres, while they were busy working in the garden, or tending the herds of sheep, which were also fired at with machine guns – since I assumed that such a material would be undesirable. Especially because it was committed against the order, and by members of the Waffen-SS (in camouflage jackets)." Regardless of Schifko's report, the German propaganda machine presented this division's soldiers in the film report as – liberators of the people of Yugoslavia.

Text © Ivan Ž. / Josef Schifko.

Photographer: Homann.
Date: November 1942.
Location: unknown, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: National Archives, 242-JRP-34-31-10A.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Jozef Šifko, Nemac iz Donje Štajerske (iz Maribora), za vreme snimanja reportaže o "Princ Eugen" diviziji (koja će biti objavljena u Nemačkom nedeljnom pregledu br. 669, krajem juna 1943. godine). On je bio i jedan od ratnih dopisnika koji su prisustvovali prvoj akciji ove jedinice – i stravičnom masakru civila u selu Kriva Reka (koji su potom i prijavili nadređenima). U svom izveštaju o toj akciji, Šifko je napisao sledeće: "Suzdržao sam se od daljeg snimanja ovde, gde su pripadnici Dobrovoljačke SS-divizije "Princ Eugen" (isključivo Nemci iz Banata) na svom putu sve što mrda pobili. Žene i decu, čak su i odojčad kundacima tukli do smrti, ili upucali. Svi muškarci pobijeni. U Krivoj Reci sve su zalihe slame, sena i ječma spaljene. Isto tako i sve kuće sa celokupnim zalihama (vuna, voće, sir, žitarice itd!!). Takođe sam se suzdržao od snimanja izolovanih žena koje su sa udaljenosti od nekoliko stotina metara pobijene mitraljezima dok su bile zaokupljene radom u bašti, ili čuvanjem stada ovaca, koja su takođe gađana mitraljeskim rafalima – jer sam pretpostavio da bi takav materijal bio nepoželjan. Pogotovo zato što je to počinjeno protiv naređenja, i od strane pripadnika SS-trupa (u maskirnim jaknama)." Uprkos Šifkovom izveštaju, nemačka propagandna mašina je vojnike ove divizije u filmskoj reportaži prikazala kao – oslobodioce naroda Jugoslavije.

Tekst © Ivan Ž. / Jozef Šifko.

Fotograf: Homan.
Datum: novembar 1942.
Mesto: nepoznato, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: National Archives, 242-JRP-34-31-10A.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

14 February 2016

0135 | Photo | SS-Freiwilligen-Division "Prinz Eugen"



Soldiers of the SS Division "Prinz Eugen" singing on a break during mountaineering training. According to the original photo caption, what they are singing is "Edelweiss" – a pre-war love song which was particularly popular among mountain troopers, since the same flower also served as the insignia of their troops. The shot was made by war correspondent Fink, who only a few weeks earlier witnessed the first action of this unit and the horrible crimes committed against civilians in the village of Kriva Reka – which he reported to the commander of the responsible regiment, SS-Obersturmbannführer Schmidhuber. At the (post-war) trial, Schmidhuber said the following about this event (a quotation from the book "Gallows for Generals" by Jovo Popović): "That was reported to me later by war correspondent Fink. I reacted strongly and issued a strict order. An investigation was carried out, and then I wrote an order which contained, roughly, the following: 'To shoot women and children, to loot – these are your only heroisms, unworthy of a soldier. Start acting like soldiers already!' I am confident that the 14th SS Regiment behaved more military-like after this order."

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: Eugen Fink.
Date: November 1942.
Location: unknown, Yugoslavia.
Original caption: "SS mountain troopers among the rocks. Everything went well. A German mountain song rings out. What else could it be other than... 'It Was an Edelweiss'."

File source: NIOD / Beeldbank WO2, 623.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Raspevani vojnici SS-divizije "Princ Eugen" na pauzi tokom obuke iz planinarenja. Prema originalnom natpisu fotografije, ono što pevaju je "Runolist" – predratna ljubavna pesma koja je bila posebno popularna među brdskim lovcima, jer je isti cvet služio i kao oznaka njihovih jedinica. Snimak je napravio ratni dopisnik Fink, koji je samo par nedelja ranije bio svedok prve akcije ove jedinice i strašnih zločina počinjenih nad civilima u selu Kriva Reka – što je i prijavio komandantu odgovornog puka, SS-oberšturmbanfireru Šmidhuberu. Na (posleratnom) suđenju, Šmidhuber je o ovom događaju izjavio sledeće (citat iz knjige "Vješala za generale" Jova Popovića): "To mi je naknadno javio ratni dopisnik Fink. Oštro sam reagovao i izdao strogo naređenje. Sprovedena je istraga, a zatim sam napisao naređenje u kojem je otprilike bilo ovo: 'Pucati na žene i decu, krasti – to su vaša dosadašnja junaštva, nedostojna vojnika. Postanite, napokon, vojnici!' Uveren sam da se 14. SS-puk posle ovog naređenja ponašao više vojnički."

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: Eugen Fink.
Datum: novembar 1942.
Mesto: nepoznato, Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: "Brdski lovci SS-a među stenama. Sve je prošlo dobro. Odjekuje nemačka planinska pesma. A šta drugo nego... 'Bio je to runolist'."

Izvor fajla: NIOD / Beeldbank WO2, 623.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

10 February 2016

0134 | Music | Edelweiß (Es war ein Edelweiß, ein kleines Edelweiß)




Although German mountain troopers had several songs of their own during World War II, the one that is still being most associated with these troops is actually a love, pre-war song – about edelweiss, a flower that they used as their insignia. The song "Edelweiss" was created in early 1939, and it speaks of a little flower that joined two lonely hearts forever, after a young man picked it and gave it to the girl he was in love with. It was translated into several languages and remained popular, both with the (German) people and the mountain troops (it is also being sung within the French Foreign Legion). It was written and composed by Herms Niel, back then Germany's favourite composer – and, in the enclosed sound file, it was performed by the I Band of the Infantry Regiment "Großdeutschland", which would come in Serbia a year and a half later, together with its unit, stay there for a month, and perform at the newly-formed Soldiers' Radio Belgrade.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Song title: Edelweiss (It Was an Edelweiss, a Little Edelweiss).
Composer: Herms Niel.
Lyricist: Herms Niel.
Date: 1939.
Lyrics: 1) All alone and abandoned, on a cliff, under the blue sky a little flower proudly stood. I couldn't resist, I picked the little flower, and gave it to the most beautiful, heart's dearest little girl. It was an edelweiss, a little edelweiss. 2) She wears it as a sign of loyalty on her Sunday dress, she knows that this little star pleases a man's heart, she wears it for my sake, and therefore I am proud; for this delicate flower once opened up two hearts. It was an edelweiss, a little edelweiss. 3) Alone and abandoned, like this little flower, the two of us stood in life, until the hearts found each other. A life full of love and happiness and sunshine was brought to us by the little, lonely flower. It was an edelweiss, a little edelweiss.

Performer: I Band of the Infantry Regiment "Großdeutschland" led by Captain Friedrich Ahlers, with Chorus of the 2nd (Motorcycle) Company, 3rd Reconnaissance Battalion.
Date: 16 October 1939.
Location: Berlin, Germany.

File source: a) Ansichtskartenpool, 573639; b) Ivan Ž. Collection.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Iako su nemački brdski lovci za vreme II svetskog rata imali nekoliko sopstvenih pesama, ona koja se i danas najviše vezuje uz ove jedinice zapravo je jedna ljubavna, predratna pesma – o runolistu, cvetu koji su koristili kao svoju oznaku. Pesma "Runolist" je nastala početkom 1939. godine, i govori o cvetiću koji je zauvek spojio dva usamljena srca, nakon što ga je momak ubrao i poklonio devojci u koju je bio zaljubljen. Prevedena je na nekoliko jezika i ostala popularna, kako u (nemačkom) narodu, tako i u brdskim jedinicama (peva se i u Francuskoj legiji stranaca). Napisao ju je i komponovao Herms Nil, tada omiljeni kompozitor u Nemačkoj – a na priloženom zvučnom zapisu je izvodi I orkestar Pešadijskog puka "Velika Nemačka", koji će godinu i po dana kasnije sa svojom jedinicom doći u Srbiju, zadržati se mesec dana, i nastupati na novoformiranom Vojničkom radiju Beograd.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Naziv pesme: Runolist (Bio je to runolist, jedan mali runolist).
Kompozitor: Herms Nil.
Tekstopisac: Herms Nil.
Datum: 1939.
Reči: 1) Sasvim sam i napušten, na jednoj litici, pod plavim nebom ponosno je stajao jedan mali cvet. Da odolim nisam mogao, cvetić sam ubrao, i poklonio ga najlepšoj, srcu najdražoj curici. Bio je to runolist, jedan mali runolist. 2) Ona ga u znak vernosti nosi na svojoj svečanoj haljini, ona zna da zvezdica ta jedno srce muško ispunjava, ona ga nosi meni za ljubav, i zato ponosan sam ja; jer taj je nežni cvet jednom otvorio srca dva. Bio je to runolist, jedan mali runolist. 3) Usamljeni i napušteni, poput cvetića tog, u životu stajali smo i mi, dok se srca nisu pronašla. Život pun ljubavi i sreće i vedrine doneo nam je taj mali, usamljeni cvet. Bio je to runolist, jedan mali runolist.

Izvođač: I orkestar Pešadijskog puka "Velika Nemačka" pod upravom kapetana Fridriha Alersa, sa horom 2. (motociklističke) čete 3. izviđačkog bataljona.
Datum: 16. oktobar 1939.
Mesto: Berlin, Nemačka.

Izvor fajla: a) Ansichtskartenpool, 573639; b) Ivan Ž. Collection.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

08 February 2016

0133 | Music | Marsch der Gebirgsjäger (Es steht ein kleines Edelweiß)




Since the war in Yugoslavia was fought, as the popular Partisan song says – through forests and over mountains [po šumama i gorama] – the German units that participated in it had to be adequate too, that is, they were mainly Jäger and mountain units. The term "Jäger" [hunter] has been used in Germany as a military term since the first half of the XVII century and the Thirty Years' War, when the first military unit composed of professional hunters and forest rangers was formed in Hesse. In the army of the Third Reich, Jäger units were formed during the war, in 1942 and 1943, for fighting in the Soviet Union and the Balkans. German mountain troops, on the other hand, have a lot shorter, more precisely – a century old tradition; they were first created during World War I, in 1915, as Alpine Corps (shortly after the formation, the corps was sent to Serbia, through which it retreated too, at the end of the war); several later famous people served in this elite unit, among whom there were future field marshals Erwin Rommel, Friedrich Paulus and Ferdinand Schörner. In the army of the Third Reich, mountain units were formed from 1935 to 1945. In the territory of Yugoslavia operated the 42nd, 100th, 104th, 114th, 117th and 118th Jäger divisions (plus the "Brandenburg" Division), the 1st and 188th mountain divisions (and the 4th during the invasion) and the 7th, 13th and 21st SS mountain divisions (formations of the 23rd and 24th divisions were also initiated, but were never completed). As their insignia, Jäger units used the oak leaves, symbol of the forest, and mountain units used the edelweiss, symbol of mountains. The "March of the Mountain Troopers" comes from 1940, and it was written and composed by a soldier, Karl-Heinz Räntzsch, who himself was a member of these troops. The lyrics are typical German, and they speak of sacrificing love, and even own life, to protect the fatherland (the Germans, however, never explained in their songs why is the fatherland always being "protected" in a foreign territory). In the recording, of three original strophes, only the first one was sung (i.e. just the romantic part of the song). The performer is the orchestra of then favourite German composer, Herms Niel, who will be given the task, the following year, to compose the official song of the invasion of Yugoslavia, for which he will be rewarded by Hitler himself, with the title of professor.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Song title: March of the Mountain Troopers (There Is a Little Edelweiss).
Composer: Karl-Heinz Räntzsch.
Lyricist: Karl-Heinz Räntzsch.
Date: 1940.
Lyrics: 1) There is a little, little edelweiss, on a steep, steep rocky height! It's surrounded by snow, yes, snow and ice, the little edel-edelweiss. 2) We're on this rocky height too, in battle and storm, ice, yes, ice and snow! We're standing guard for the German fatherland and protecting it from the enemy hands. 3) And should I never return, then do not cry, yes, do not cry, my love. A steep rock is my silent tomb, destined for my eternal rest. Refrain: I'm greeting you, my love – don't forget me, my love – from a steep, steep rocky height, yes, height! Where the mountain wind strongly blows, there is a little flower, the little edel-edel-edelweiss.

Performer: Band of the Reich Labour Service led by Oberfeldmeister Herms Niel, with soldiers' chorus.
Date: 24 June 1940.
Location: Berlin, Germany.

File source: a) Universität Osnabrück / Prof. Dr. Sabine Giesbrecht, 17 3 020pf; b) Ivan Ž. Collection.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Pošto je u Jugoslaviji rat vođen, kao što popularna partizanska pesma kaže – po šumama i gorama – i nemačke jedinice koje su učestvovale u njemu morale su biti odgovarajuće, odnosno većinom su bile lovačke i brdske. Termin "lovac" u Nemačkoj se koristio kao vojni još od prve polovine XVII veka i Tridesetogodišnjeg rata, kada je u Hesenu formirana prva vojna jedinica sastavljena od profesionalnih lovaca i šumara. U vojsci Trećeg Rajha, lovačke jedinice su formirane u toku rata, 1942. i 1943. godine, za borbe u Sovjetskom Savezu i na Balkanu. Nemačke brdske jedinice, s druge strane, imaju dosta kraću, tačnije – jedan vek staru tradiciju; nastale su za vreme I svetskog rata, 1915. godine, pod imenom Alpski korpus (ubrzo po formiranju, korpus je poslat i u Srbiju, preko koje se takođe i povlačio, na kraju rata); u ovoj elitnoj jedinici služilo je više kasnije poznatih ličnosti, među kojima su bili i budući feldmaršali Ervin Romel, Fridrih Paulus i Ferdinand Šerner. U vojsci Trećeg Rajha, brdske jedinice su formirane od 1935. do 1945. godine. Na teritoriji Jugoslavije operisale su 42, 100, 104, 114, 117. i 118. lovačka divizija (plus "Brandenburg" divizija), 1. i 188. brdska divizija (i 4. za vreme invazije) i 7, 13. i 21. brdska SS-divizija (formiranje 23. i 24. divizije je takođe bilo započeto, ali nije dovršeno). Lovačke jedinice su kao oznaku nosile hrastovo lišće, simbol šume, a brdske jedinice runolist, simbol planina. "Marš brdskih lovaca" potiče iz 1940. godine, a napisao ga je i komponovao jedan vojnik, Karl-Hajnc Renč, koji je i sam bio pripadnik ovih jedinica. Reči pesme su tipične nemačke, i govore o žrtvovanju ljubavi, pa i sopstvenog života, da bi se zaštitila otadžbina (Nemci, međutim, u pesmama nikad nisu objasnili zbog čega se otadžbina "štiti" uvek na tuđoj teritoriji). Na zvučnom zapisu, od tri originalne strofe otpevana je samo prva (tj. samo ljubavni deo pesme). Izvođač je orkestar tada omiljenog nemačkog kompozitora, Hermsa Nila, koji će naredne godine dobiti zadatak da komponuje i zvaničnu pesmu invazije na Jugoslaviju, za koju će ga Hitler lično nagraditi, titulom profesora.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Naziv pesme: Marš brdskih lovaca (Ima jedan mali runolist).
Kompozitor: Karl-Hajnc Renč.
Tekstopisac: Karl-Hajnc Renč.
Datum: 1940.
Reči: 1) Ima jedan mali, mali runolist, na jednom strmom, strmom, stenovitom vrhu! Okružen je snegom, da, snegom i ledom, taj mali runo-runolist. 2) I mi smo na tom stenovitom vrhu, u borbi i oluji, ledu, da, ledu i snegu! Za nemačku otadžbinu stražu čuvamo i od neprijateljskih šaka mi je štitimo. 3) A ako se ne vratim više, ti ne plači, da, ne plači, zlato moje. Moj tihi grob je strma stena jedna, za večni počinak ona mi je suđena. Refren: Pozdravljam te, zlato moje – ne zaboravi me, zlato moje – sa jednog strmog, strmog, stenovitog vrha, da, vrha! Tamo gde oštro planinski vetar duva, ima jedan mali cvet, mali runo-runo-runolist.

Izvođač: Orkestar Radne službe Rajha pod upravom oberfeldmajstera Hermsa Nila, sa vojnim horom.
Datum: 24. jun 1940.
Mesto: Berlin, Nemačka.

Izvor fajla: a) Universität Osnabrück / Prof. Dr. Sabine Giesbrecht, 17 3 020pf; b) Ivan Ž. Collection.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

06 February 2016

0132 | Photo | SS-Freiwilligen-Division "Prinz Eugen"



Operation "Black". Interrogation of a Partisan, captured by members of the SS Division "Prinz Eugen", on a hill north-west of the village of Mratinje, at the very end of the operation. His hands were tied high behind his back, with a rope – which was thrown and tightened around his neck. In this position, a man's upper body is completely disabled: by lowering his head, he tightens the already strained enough hands, and by lowering his hands, he is strangling himself – that is, with any movement (of these body parts), he causes himself an additional pain. Such binding was certainly unnecessary, and can be interpreted only as toying, i.e. viciousness; he is the only prisoner, he is surrounded by SS men (some are laughing, others scowl at him), and they are all standing at the top of a hill, isolated (where there is no room for sudden or hidden movements). His fate is unknown.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: Kollik.
Date: 13 June 1943.
Location: Mratinje (Plužine), Yugoslavia.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: National Archives, 242-JRP-45-48-2A.

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Operacija "Crno". Ispitivanje jednog partizana, zarobljenog od strane pripadnika SS-divizije "Princ Eugen", na jednom brdu severozapadno od sela Mratinja, pred sam kraj operacije. Ruke su mu vezane visoko iza leđa, konopcem – koji je prebačen i zategnut preko vrata. U ovakvom položaju, čoveku je gornji deo tela potpuno onesposobljen: spuštanjem glave on zateže već sasvim zategnute ruke, a spuštanjem ruku davi samog sebe, odnosno – bilo kakvim pokretom (ovih delova tela), sam sebi nanosi dodatni bol. Ovakvo vezivanje je svakako bilo nepotrebno, i može se protumačiti jedino kao poigravanje, tj. iživljavanje; on je jedini zarobljenik, okružen je esesovcima (jedni mu se smeju, drugi mršte), i svi se nalaze na vrhu brda, izolovani (gde nema prilike za iznenadne ili skrivene pokrete). Njegova sudbina nije poznata.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: Kolik.
Datum: 13. jun 1943.
Mesto: Mratinje (Plužine), Jugoslavija.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: National Archives, 242-JRP-45-48-2A.

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.

04 February 2016

0131 | Photo | SS-Jagdverband Südost



An extremely rare photograph of Serbs in SS uniforms. At the end of 1944, the situation reversed in a large part of Yugoslavia; with the help of Soviet troops, the power was now being seized by the former guerrillas, the Partisans – while in Germany the former occupiers formed guerrilla units to fight them. These small groups (raiding platoons) consisted mainly of members of the Serbian Volunteer Corps (SDK) and POWs, and their goal was to transfer to Serbia and carry out acts of sabotage and raids on weaker enemy units, as well as to spread the underground propaganda, for the purpose of gathering and organising the anti-communist oriented part of the population (very similar to the Partisan beginnings, only on the opposite side). The acts of sabotage against the new, pro-Soviet authorities were to be carried out with the use (and leaving traces) of the British material, in order to intensify the already tense enough relations between the Western and Eastern Allies. These (Serbian) raiding platoons belonged to Company Serbia-Croatia of the SS Raiding Unit South-East. Their training was carried out within the Waffen-SS and under the auspices of the Reich Security Office (RSHA). Even though the (Serbian) platoons officially belonged to an SS unit, their soldiers, however, were not members of the SS. The photo shows the Raiding Platoon "Ringelnatter" transporting from Vienna (via Zagreb) to Sarajevo. According to the platoon commander, Captain Branko Gašparević "Gara" (pictured on the left), they travelled "dressed in German uniforms, with various insignia, camouflaged as the Banat Germans" (that is, temporarily disguised, in someone else's uniforms). The soldiers were disguised, most likely, for security reasons and unhindered transport (only a couple of weeks earlier, in Zagreb, the Ustashas stopped the transport of a group of officers in Serbian uniforms, members of the SDK, and shot them all, even though they had German papers, were on a German mission and accompanied by a German NCO). In any case, the "Ringelnatter" Platoon was essentially an illusory formation and for the majority of its members merely a means to return to their homeland. When the platoon finally reached Bosnia, its members abandoned it as soon as possible; some went to the Chetniks, some to the SDK, and the rest (who got sick along the way) were left to be treated in hospitals – and Gašparević soon had only one man at his disposal. Formally, a new group was assigned to him, consisted of Chetniks, over which (according to his own confession) he had no authority. He was used as a convenient source of armament, and after the planned crossing of the Drina river (from Bosnia to Serbia), he was supposed to be liquidated. However, he was captured (without resistance) on the Bosnian side, by the Partisans, and executed after a trial. He was a teacher by profession (and a captain of the old army), born in Croatia, from where he escaped because of the Ustashas (who killed his parents) in 1941, with no possessions, to Serbia – where he was taken care of by the "Zbor" organisation, through which he also became a member of the SDK. He left the Serbian volunteers rather quickly, after a few months, and spent most of the war as a music teacher in a home for refugee children, and as a "Zbor" educator. At the end of the war, he returned to the SDK and served in a raiding platoon, which (according to him) had its only fight upon the very arrival in Bosnia, with the Ustashas. Although, at the trial, he was also accused of (fictional) terrorist actions in Serbia (whose border he did not even cross), Gašparević pleaded guilty anyway.

Text © Ivan Ž.

Photographer: unknown.
Date: winter 1944/45.
Location: unknown.
Original caption: unknown.

File source: "Nemačka obaveštajna služba" IV (p. 981).

NOT ALLOWED: removing source credits from the files – using text without crediting the original author – using files and information for political propaganda and commercial purposes.



Izuzetno retka fotografija Srba u SS-uniformama. Krajem 1944. godine, situacija se u većem delu Jugoslavije bila preokrenula; uz pomoć sovjetskih trupa, sada su vlast preuzimali bivši gerilci, partizani – dok su u Nemačkoj bivši okupatori formirali gerilske jedinice za borbu protiv njih. Ove male grupe (diverzantski vodovi) bile su sastavljene mahom od pripadnika Srpskog dobrovoljačkog korpusa (SDK) i ratnih zarobljenika, a njihov cilj je bio prebacivanje u Srbiju radi vršenja sabotaža i prepada na slabije neprijateljske jedinice, kao i širenje podzemne propagande, u svrhu okupljanja i organizovanja protivkomunistički orijentisanog dela stanovništva (vrlo slično partizanskim počecima, samo na suprotnoj strani). Sabotaže protiv nove, pro-sovjetske vlasti trebalo je vršiti uz korišćenje (i ostavljanje tragova) engleskog materijala, ne bi li se time još više pooštrili već dovoljno napeti odnosi između Zapadnih i Istočnih saveznika. Ovi (srpski) diverzantski vodovi pripadali su četi Srbija-Hrvatska Diverzantske SS-jedinice Jugoistok. Njihova obuka je vršena pri SS-trupama, a pod okriljem Odeljenja bezbednosti Rajha (RSHA). Iako su ovi (srpski) vodovi zvanično pripadali SS-jedinici, njihovi vojnici, međutim, nisu bili pripadnici SS-a. Na slici je prikazan Diverzantski vod "Belouška" tokom transporta iz Beča (preko Zagreba) u Sarajevo. Prema izjavi komandira voda, kapetana Branka Gašparevića "Gare" (na slici levo), putovali su "obučeni u nemačke uniforme, sa raznim oznakama, kamuflirani kao banatski Nemci" (dakle, u tuđim uniformama, privremeno prerušeni). Vojnici su prerušeni, najverovatnije, iz bezbednosnih razloga i radi nesmetanog transporta (samo par nedelja ranije, u Zagrebu, ustaše su zaustavile transport jedne grupe oficira u srpskim uniformama, pripadnika SDK, i sve ih streljale, iako su imali nemačke papire, bili na nemačkom zadatku i u pratnji nemačkog podoficira). U svakom slučaju, vod "Belouška" u suštini je bio jedna prividna formacija i za većinu njegovih pripadnika samo sredstvo za povratak u domovinu. Kada je vod konačno stigao u Bosnu, njegovi su ga pripadnici u najkraćem roku napustili; jedni su otišli u četnike, drugi u SDK, a treći (koji su se usput razboleli) su ostali da se leče po bolnicama – i Gašparević je na raspolaganju ubrzo imao samo jednog čoveka. Formalno mu je dodeljena nova grupa, sastavljena od četnika, nad kojom (po sopstvenom priznanju) nije imao nikakav autoritet. Korišćen je kao povoljan izvor naoružanja, a nakon planiranog prelaska Drine (iz Bosne u Srbiju), trebalo je da bude likvidiran. Međutim, zarobljen je (bez otpora) na bosanskoj strani, od strane partizana, i posle suđenja pogubljen. Po zanimanju je bio učitelj (a u staroj vojsci kapetan), rodom iz Hrvatske, odakle je pobegao zbog ustaša (koje su mu ubile roditelje) 1941. godine, bez ičega, u Srbiju – gde je zbrinut od strane organizacije "Zbor", preko koje je postao i pripadnik SDK. Srpske dobrovoljce je napustio prilično brzo, posle nekoliko meseci, i veći deo rata proveo kao učitelj muzike u domu za izbegličku decu, i kao prosvetar "Zbora". Pred kraj rata se vratio u SDK i služio u diverzantskom vodu, koji je (prema njegovim rečima) svoju jedinu borbu vodio po samom dolasku u Bosnu, i to sa ustašama. Iako je na suđenju bio optužen i za (izmišljene) terorističke akcije u Srbiji (čiju granicu nije ni uspeo da pređe), Gašparević je svejedno izjavio da se oseća krivim.

Tekst © Ivan Ž.

Fotograf: nepoznat.
Datum: zima 1944/45.
Mesto: nepoznato.
Originalni natpis: nepoznat.

Izvor fajla: "Nemačka obaveštajna služba" IV (str. 981).

NIJE DOZVOLJENO: uklanjanje naziva izvora sa fajlova – korišćenje teksta bez navođenja izvornog autora – korišćenje fajlova i informacija u političko-propagandne i komercijalne svrhe.